Pêvek:kurdî-inglîzî1

Ji Wîkîferheng
Here cem: navîgasyon, lêgerîn

A[biguherîne]

  • a = ya; bi ~ in the opinion of: bi a min in my opinion
  • abadîn eternal
  • aborî economic, financial; f economy; ~zan economist
  • ‘aciz helpless, unable to cope (ji with): ez ji kêzikan zehf aciz im I am utterly incapable of coping with bugs
  • Adar f March
  • ‘adet f custom; ~î ordinary
  • aferîde m creature
  • aferîn bravo; ~ ji … re good for …
  • afirandin v.t. to create
  • afîş f poster
  • aga aware (li of)
  • agadarî f information, announcement;
  • awareness
  • agah = aga
  • agahdarî = agadarî
  • agir m (obl. êgir) fire; ~ danîn bi to set fire to
  • agirî f Ağrı, in extreme eastern Turkey
  • aheng f tune, tone
  • ajotin ajo- v.t. to drive (vehicle); to pass, last (of time): pir neajotibû ku… not much time had passed before…, vê bêdangiya han heta sala 1980 ajot this silence lasted until the year 1980; ~ ser to attack
  • al (1) side
  • al (2) f flag, banner
  • al (3) red
  • ala flag, banner
  • al’al tulip
  • alandin v.t. to twist
  • alastin alês- v.t. to lick
  • alaş thatch; ~kirî thatched
  • alav f flame
  • alayî f troop, regiment
  • alet m instrument, tool
  • alês- → alastin
  • alfabe f alphabet
  • ‘alim m scholar
  • alî (1) m side, part; bi her ~yê ve in every direction; dan ~yekî v.t. to put aside, to draw to one side; ji ~yekî / ji ~kî on the one hand; ji ~yê din on the other hand; ji ~yê … ve by (passive agent), on the part of
  • alî (2), arî f help; ~kar helping, helpful; ~karî f help, support; ~karî kirin v.t. to help: min alîkariya wî dikir I used to help him
  • ‘alî (3) supreme
  • alîkar partisan; ~î kirin v.t. to take s.o.’s part, be partisan
  • alînegir neutral
  • alman German; ~ya f Germany
  • aloz scattered, random
  • amade ready; ~ kirin v.t. to make ready; xwe ~ kirin f to get oneself ready
  • ambelaj f wrapping, packing
  • Amerîka/Amerîqa f America; ~yî American
  • Amûda f ‘Amūdā, a town in Syria near Qāmishlī
  • an or; ~ na or not; an…an either…or
  • ancax so much
  • anîn v.t. (pres. ind. tînim, neg. naynim; subj. bînim, neg. subj. neynim) to bring
  • anîzazî f cleverness
  • Anteqye f Antakya, Antioch
  • anuha = niha
  • ap, apo m paternal uncle
  • ‘aqil1 m mind, intelligence
  • ‘aqil2 intelligent
  • ‘aqûbet f end
  • ardû m fuel
  • arî (dial. var.) = alî2
  • armanc f aim, goal
  • armûş m a sheaf of grain
  • armûxan m gift
  • arnawid Albanian
  • arşîv f archive
  • artêş f army
  • arûk m ceiling
  • arxayîn confident
  • asê rugged, steep; ~geh f fortification
  • asê kirin v.t. to catch
  • asêwarî untimely
  • asiman, asîman m heaven; ~î heavenly
  • asîmîlasiyon f assimilation
  • asîmîle assimilated
  • aso f horizon
  • asteng m difficult road, rough terrain, obstacle
  • asin m (dial. var.) = hesin
  • ‘aşiq in love; ~ê … bûn to be in love with
  • aşitî f peace, truce; ease, comfort
  • aşî = aşitî
  • ‘atifî emotional
  • av f water; ~ û hewa f climate
  • ava1 built up, prosperous, developed; ~kirin v.t. to develop; ~ker m developer, founder
  • ava2 çûn v.i. to set (of the sun)
  • avahî f building, edifice
  • avayî = avahî
  • avdayî tempered (steel)
  • avêj- → avêtin
  • avêş f balm
  • avêtin avêj- v.t. to throw, throw away, throw out; lay (foundation); ~a ji text de dethronement; dest ~ … to touch s.th.
  • awa f manner, means; bi ~yekî somehow; bi wî ~yî by this means; bi hemû ~yî by all/any means
  • awaz m voice, sound, singing
  • awir f glance, backward look
  • awur (dial. var.) = awir
  • ax1 sigh, ouch; ~ avêtin v.t. to say ouch
  • ax2 f land, earth, dirt; ~a welat homeland; ~a Sûriyê the land of Syria
  • axa m (obl axê) agha, feudal lord, master
  • axaftin axiv- v.i. to speak
  • axar ???
  • axil corral
  • axiftin (dial. var.) = axaftin
  • axiret f the other world: mirovê axiretê an other-worldly person
  • axîn v.i. to cry, to cry out
  • axpîne f patch of ground, field
  • AY = Ameriqayê Yekbûyî USA
  • azad free; ~ kirin v.t. to set free; ~î f liberty
  • azar f anguish; ~ dan v.t. to torment, vex
  • azman m sky

B[biguherîne]

  • b- → birin, bûn
  • ba1 m (obl bê) wind
  • ba2 m turn
  • ba3 (prep.) with, in front of, in the presence of; li ~ with, chez
  • ba4 m rheumatism; ~wî rheumatic
  • babet f regard: di vê babetê de in this regard
  • babo daddy
  • ba-dan v.t. to turn, twist, wring
  • badayî turned, twisted
  • bager f snowstorm
  • bahar = bihar
  • bahlif f pillow
  • bajar m (obl bajêr) city; ~î m merchant, citified; ~van citizen, city dweller; ~vanî urban: jiyana bajarvaniyê urban life
  • baku f Baku
  • bakurofe f gust of wind
  • bakûr m north
  • bal1 f wing, arm
  • bal2 f attention, mind, thought; ~ kişandin to attract the attention: wêneyên min bala rojname û hunermendan kişandin my pictures attracted the attention of newspapers and artists; ~dar attentive, discerning; ~drêj patient, careful; ~fireh patient, calm; ~kêş attractive, interesting
  • balaxane f balcony
  • balefir m airplane; ~geh airport
  • balgî m pillow
  • balîf = bahlîf
  • ban m roof
  • ban ban kirin v.t. to shout, to yell
  • bandev f summit
  • bandor f influence
  • bang f call, cry; ~ dan v.t. to give out a cry, to herald; ~ kirin v.t. to shout
  • banz = baz
  • bar m load; ~ bûn to be loaded; to bear up: çavên wan bar nebûbû they hadn’t been able to bear the sight; ~kirin v.t. to load up, move (household); ~kêş m porter
  • baran f rain; ~din v.t. to rain down
  • bare: di ~ya … de (prep.) about, concerning
  • barîk slender, thin
  • barîn/~iyan v.i. to rain down
  • bask m arm, wing: baskê çepê partiya sosyal-demokrat the leftist wing of the Social-Democrat Party; ~ên xwe li hev xistin to flap one’s wings
  • baş good; ~ kirin v.t. to improve; ~kirin f improvement
  • başok(e) falcon
  • başûr m south
  • bav m (voc. bavo) father; ~îtî f fatherhood, paternality
  • bawer believing: ez ~ im ku… I believe that …; ~ kirin v.t. to believe: gelek kes bawer dikin ku… many people believe that…; ~î f belief, trust; ~mend m believer
  • bawî1 m father
  • bawî2 → ba4
  • bawîşk f yawn
  • baxçe m garden, yard
  • baz jump, leap; ~ dan v.t. to dance; to run away in fear, to flee in haste
  • bazar f market; ~a reş black market
  • beden m body
  • bedew beautiful, splendid
  • bedyûm ill-omened
  • befr f (dial. var.) = berf
  • behr f sea
  • behs f discussion; ~kirin v.t. to discuss
  • bejin f height, stature; ~bilind tall; ~ û
  • bala tall stature
  • bel straight; ~ kirin v.t. to straighten, prick up (ears, &c.)
  • bela f catastrophe
  • belaş for free, gratis
  • belav widespread, scattered; ~ bûn v.i. to be scattered; ~ kirin v.t. to spread, broadcast, disseminate; ~ok f publication
  • belavê nav … bûn v.i. to spread out through
  • belediye f municipality
  • belek speckled, spotted
  • belekî f water spring
  • belengaz poor, destitute; ~î f poverty, destitution
  • bélê yes
  • belg m leaf
  • belgih m suit, clothing; ~ girtin v.t. to garb oneself
  • belkî maybe, perhaps
  • ben = bend
  • bend f bond; li ~a for the sake of, chained to, waiting for: divê em êdî li benda sibehê ranewestin we shouldn’t stand around waiting for tomorrow;

~ kirin v.t. to fetter, arrest; man di ~a to wait for

  • benderuh creature
  • bendewar bûn bi to love, be in love with
  • benzîn f gasoline
  • beq m frog
  • ber1 m breast, fore; ber-dan see alphabetically; ~ bi hev hatin v.i. to cooperate; ~ê (ve) (adv.) before; ~î ku (conj.) before; ji ~ kirin v.t. to memorize; ji ~ jmartin v.t. to reel off from memory; ji ~ ku because (conj.); ji ~… ve (ccmp.) before; ji ~ zanîn v.t. to memorize; li ~ (prep.) before, on account of; li ~ (+ inf.) on the verge of: ew hêviya ku li ber geşbûnê bû çilmisî that hope, which was on the verge of blossoming, withered; wek(e) ~ê as before
  • ber2 m yield, fruit; ~ wergirtin ji to derive a yield from
  • beramber equal, equivalent; ~î f equality; ~î … kirin v.t. to compare to: wî ew beramberî Anton Çexov dikir he used to compare him to Anton Chekhov
  • beran m ram
  • ber-anîn (ber-în) v.t. to imagine
  • berate f carcass
  • berban m ceiling
  • berberî f comparison
  • berbêjî f prediction
  • berbiçav conspicuous
  • berbihevhatin f cooperation
  • berbînî f imaginary image, vision
  • bercênîk ???
  • berçav visible, clear, before the eyes; ~ anin v.t. to pay attention
  • ber-dan v.t. to release, let go; to put on (clothes); to close, stop, give up: dev ~ ji to close the mouth to, stop, give up; ~ ser to direct toward; tiving ~ to fire a rifle at: xulamê wî ew da ber tifingê his servant fired the rifle at him; xwe ~ ser to turn oneself toward, direct oneself to
  • berdest available
  • berdestk servant
  • berdewam continual(ly), constant(ly); ~ kirin v.t. to continue
  • berdêl f equivalent; ji ~a instead of
  • berdêlk = berdêl; bi ~ equivalent in value
  • berebere more and more, ever more; gradually, little by little
  • bereket m blessing; bi ~ luckily
  • berev = berhev
  • berf f snow
  • berferih spacious; ~ kirin v.t. to open, initiate
  • bergeh f view, vista
  • berhem m product, literary work; ~bar productive
  • berhev gathered, collected; ~ kirin v.t. to prepare, gather; xwe ~ kirin v.t. to pull oneself together
  • berhevok f collection
  • berik f bullet
  • beriqîn v.i. to glisten
  • berizîn bi v.i. to fight with, do battle with
  • berî f pocket
  • berîde perplexed, lost
  • berîk f pocket
  • ber-ketin v.i. to feel sad
  • bermil f load
  • bername f program
  • beroş f pot, pan
  • berovajî to the contrary
  • berpêş kirin v.t. to suggest, to propose
  • berpirsiyar responsible; m manager; ~î f responsibility, management
  • berq f lightning
  • bersîv f answer, reply; ~ dan bi to reply to, answer; ~a … dan to satisfy the needs of; ~andin v.t. to respond, reply
  • berten f trousers
  • bervajî f opposite side; ji ~yê contrariwise, conversely
  • bervê prep. toward
  • berwar m slope
  • berx lamb
  • berxwedan f resistance
  • bes much, many a; enough
  • best f plain
  • best m joy, glee, relish
  • beş m part; ~dar participant; ~dar bûn v.i. to take part, participate
  • beşavend f rhyme
  • beşer f human being
  • betalî f unemployment, uselessness, idleness
  • bexçe = baxçe
  • bexda f Baghdad
  • bext m luck; ~iyar fortunate, happy; ~iyarî f good fortune, happiness; bê~ unfortunate
  • beybûn f camomile
  • bez1 f speed: bi lez û ~ quickly, with all speed; bayê ~ê the racing wind; ~în
  • bez- v.i. to run
  • bez2 m kind, sort
  • beza fast-running, galloping
  • bezir lost
  • bê1 → ba
  • bê-2 (prefix) without; see compounds alphabetically
  • bêaqil stupid
  • bêbawer disbelieving, unsure; ~î f disbelief
  • bêbest uncontrollable
  • bêbext unlucky, unfortunate; ~î f unluckiness, misfortune
  • bêçare helpless, poor; ~tî f helplessness
  • bêçine useless
  • bêçiqasî inordinately
  • bêdar treeless, barren
  • bêdeng silent; ~î f silence, obscurity
  • bêdil halfhearted, unwilling
  • bêfedî lack of embarrassment
  • bêgav impossible, helpless
  • bêgoşt skinny
  • bêguman doubtless(ly)
  • bêhamd reluctantly, unwillingly
  • bêhawe unparalleled, extraordinary
  • bêhay unconscious, unaware; dinyayê ~ the subconscious world
  • bêhejiyan û livat without movement or motion
  • bêhejmar innumerable
  • bêhempa unparalleled, peerless
  • bêhêvî without hope, in despair; ~ kirin v.t. to make s.o. despair
  • bêhêzî f weakness, debility
  • bêhişiyarî without feeling, numb
  • bêhn1 f breath; ~a min teng bû I was bored; ~a xwe teng kirin to bore oneself, let oneself get bored; ~a … çikandin v.t. to suffocate; ~tengî f boredom
  • bêhn2 f smell, odor; ~ berdan to leave an odor behind; ~ dan to give off an odor; ketin ser ~ê to pick up a scent; ~çikîn dry-smelling
  • bêhtengî = bêhntengî
  • bêî prep. without; ~ ku (conj., + subj.) without: îro jî bêî ku mirov tu zehmetiyan bikişîne, mirov bi hêsanî ji wan tê digihê even today one easily understands them without going to any trouble
  • bêîmkanî f impossibility
  • bêj- → gotin
  • bêje f word: ~ bi ~ word by word; ~r speaker
  • bêjing f sieve
  • bêkar unemployed; ~î f unemployment
  • bêkes lonely, alone, unprotected
  • bê li prep. without
  • bêmane fearful, dreadful
  • bêmecalî f lack of opportunity
  • bêminet relentless(ly)
  • bênamus dishonorable
  • bênav nameless, unnamed
  • bênavbirî incessant
  • bênihtin v.i. to freeze
  • bênîşan spotless
  • bêpar deprived
  • bêpejnî f tranquility
  • bêpîvan immeasurable
  • bêr. See xêr.
  • bêrî f longing; ~ kirin v.t. to long for, miss
  • bêrik = bêrîk
  • bêrîk f pocket; wek hundirê bêrika şalê xwe nasîn to know something “like the back of one’s hand”
  • Bêrûd f Beirut bêsedem without reason, unprovoked
  • bê serûbin endless
  • bêşerm shameless; ~î f shamelessness
  • bêşik doubtless
  • bêtar storm
  • bêtaw impatient, restless
  • bêtir more
  • bêtîn powerless, weak
  • bêvil, bêvîl f nose, nostril
  • bêxanî homeless
  • bê xayî limitless
  • bêxeber unaware (ji of); ji her derî ~ totally oblivious
  • bêxew sleepless, suffering from insomnia;

~î f sleeplessness, lack of sleep

  • bêxudan = bêxwedî
  • bêxweda godless, damned
  • bêxwedî godless, ownerless, orphaned, poor, lonely
  • bêyî = bêî
  • bêzarî f nuisance, headache
  • bêzaro childless
  • bi- subjunctive prefix
  • bi … re (ccmp.; bi + wî/wê > pê) by, with, upon: bi tirên re by train; bi min re with me; bi bihîstina deng re upon hearing the sound
  • bi … ve (ccmp.; bi + wî/wê > pê) through, up to: ji wê rojê pê ve from that day to this
  • bi- subjunctive verbal prefix
  • biaqil intelligent, smart; ~î f intelligence
  • biçûk little; ~anî f childhood, youth
  • bidardakirin → dar
  • biha bûn v.i. to be valuable
  • bihar f spring, springtime; ~î pertaining to spring
  • bihin = bêhn; bi ~ with odor, with fragrance; ~dar fragrant
  • bihişmet magnificent
  • bihişt f paradise; ~în paradisiacal, heavenly
  • bihîstin bihîs-/bihîz- v.t. to hear, listen
  • bihn = bêhn1
  • bihorîn v.i. to pass
  • bihostin v.t. ???
  • bihuk insect
  • bihurandîn bihurîn- v.t. to spend (time): ew zaroktiya xwe li Kurdistana
  • bakûr bihurandiye he spent his childhood in North Kurdistan
  • bihurtin bihur- v.i. to pass, be spent
  • bihuşt f span. See also bihişt.
  • bihûr- = bihurbijarte choice, select
  • bijartin bijêr- v.t. to choose
  • bijiqandin v.t. to tear to shreds
  • bijîjk m physician
  • bijîn lively
  • bijîv f sustenance
  • bikaranîn → kar
  • bikêr useful
  • bíla (+ subj.) let: çi dibe bila bibe whatever happens, let it happen
  • bilbil nightingale
  • bilez quick, hasty
  • bilind high; ~ kirin v.t. to raise, to elevate; ~cih m height, high place
  • biliyan v.i. to arise (sound)
  • bilî other than, aside from; ~ ji ditto
  • bilûr f shepherd’s pipe, flute
  • bin m bottom; di ~ under; ~dest underling, oppressed; ~geh m foundation, basis; ~gehê … avetin to lay the foundation of …; ~gehîn basic; ~xet f south of the Turkish border, i.e. Syriaand Iraq
  • binûr luminous
  • bipêşdexistin f advancement, improvement
  • biqedr worthwhile, valuable
  • bir m part
  • bira1 m (obl. pl biran) brother
  • bira2 = bila
  • bira3 really
  • birc f tower
  • birçî hungry; ~n f hunger; ~tî f hunger
  • birêvebir m leader
  • birh m eyebrow
  • birin b- v.t. to carry, take; ~ jêr to bring/take down/away; ~ jor to bring/ take up
  • biriqîn v.i. to sparkle, shimmer
  • birîn1 f wound; ~ kirin v.t. to wound; ~dar m wounded
  • birîn2 = birrîn
  • birrîn v.t. to cut, to cross: wî sînor birrî he crossed the border
  • birsî hungry
  • birsîn f hunger
  • birûsk f lightning; ~e f telegram
  • biryar f decision; ~ dan v.t. to decide
  • biserketin f success
  • bişkul m goat and sheep droppings
  • biv m buzz
  • bivê nevê willy-nilly, like it or not
  • bivir m ax
  • biwa (alternative past conditional of bûn) = bûya
  • bixêrhatinî dan v.t. to welcome
  • bixwe by oneself, personally
  • biyanî m foreign(er), stranger, alien; ~stan f any foreign place, “foreign parts”; ~tî f strangeness, alienation: jiyana biyanîtiyê life of alienation
  • bizin f goat
  • bizir m seed
  • bizivîn v.i. to budge
  • bîhin = bêhn
  • bîn = bêhn
  • bîn- → dîtin, anîn
  • bîna (dial. var.) = mîna
  • bînahî f sight
  • bînanî prep. like
  • bînber m sight
  • bîr1 f memory; bi ~ anîn v.t. to remember: baş bîne bîra xwe ku… remember well that…; ~a … birin to take into consideration; ~ hatin v.i. to remember: tê bîra min I remember; ji ~(a) kirin v.t. to forget; ~anîn f memory, reminiscence
  • bîr2 f well
  • bîranî f memory
  • bîst1 twenty; ~salî twenty-year-old
  • bîst2 f moment, a short period of time: bîstek neborî it didn’t take long before
  • bîstin bîs- v.t. to hear
  • bîşeng f weeping willow
  • bîz- = bihîz → bihîstin
  • bîzbîzî matted
  • bo (prep.) for; (conj.) so that, in order that
  • boç f tail
  • boçik f tail
  • bombe f bomb; ~yên destan hand grenades
  • bona prep. for: ~ vê yekê for this reason
  • borandin v.t. to spend (time), make (time) pass
  • borî f pipe
  • borîn v.i. to last, pass (time): çend meh naborin not many months passed (n.p.); v.t. to excuse: min bibore excuse me
  • bostan m garden
  • boş wide, widespread, abundant
  • boxçe f bundle
  • braştî roasted
  • brûsk = birûsk
  • buhar = bihar
  • buhirîn v.t. to take away, clear off
  • buhurandin buhurîn- v.t. to spend (time); ~în v.i. to pass, pass away
  • buhurtin buhur- v.i. to pass, pass away, go out
  • buhurî last, past: sala ~ last year
  • bulbul nightingale
  • bûk f bride, daughter-in-law; ~anî f wedding
  • bûn b- v.i. to be, become
  • bûsî f ambush
  • bûyer f incident, event
  • bûz ice
  • BZ = berê zayînê B.C.

C[biguherîne]

  • ca (used with imperatives): ~ were come on!; ca bifikire ku just think what it would be like if …
  • cam f glass
  • camêr courageous, gallant, gentlemanly
  • casûs m spy
  • car f time; ~ ~an often, many times; ~din again, once again; ~inan from time to time; ~kê = carekê once; ~na sometimes
  • cax protective fencing
  • cazîbedar interesting
  • cebhe f front (mil.)
  • ceger f liver (poetic); ~ şîrîn darling, beloved
  • cejin f celebration, festival
  • celeb m sort, kind: du celeb kes hene: yên baş û yên nebaş there are two kinds of people, good and evil
  • celx m/f slit, crack
  • cem m group; side; a large basket; li ~ beside, with: li cem wan beside them, with them
  • cendek m body, corpse
  • ceng f battle
  • cerg f liver
  • ceribandin v.t. to try, test
  • cewr m pup; ~ik m puppy
  • ceza f fine, penalty; ~ wergirtin v.t. to receive a penalty, to be fined
  • cidî serious
  • cigar(e) f cigarette
  • cih m place; pl bed; ~ bi ~ from place to place; ~ girtin v.t. to take place; ~ kirin v.t. to put, place; ~ li xwe xweş kirin v.t. to make oneself comfortable; ~ê … girtin v.t. to take the place of; ~ê local; ~ê ~ê various, sundry; ~gir occupant; bi ~ anîn to bring about, bring to fruition; bi ~ bûn li to settle in, take up residence in; di nav ~an de in bed
  • cihan f the world
  • cil m clothing; ~ û berg (pl) clothes
  • cin djinn, demon; ~anlêxistî possessed by demons
  • cinewir monster
  • cirecir f talk, chit-chat
  • civandin civîn- v.t. to move, set in motion
  • civak society; community; ~î social, societal; ~nas sociologist; ~nasî f sociology
  • civat f society, group
  • civîn v.i. to move; ~în f movement
  • ciwan young, beautiful; ~tî f youth
  • cixar(e) (dial. var.) = cigar
  • cixiz kirin v.t. to mark, to leave marks in
  • cî = cih
  • cîhan f world
  • cîhêlkirin f surveillance
  • cîran neighbor
  • cografî geographical
  • col m pack (of wolves, &c.)
  • core core various
  • coş enthusiasm, excited
  • cot1 m pair
  • cot2 m plow; ~kârî f agriculture
  • cube m robe
  • cumhûriyet f republic
  • cunta f junta
  • cure cure (dial. var.) = core core
  • curet kirin v.t. to dare
  • cûda separate; ~ kirin v.t. to separate
  • cûm bûn v.i. to be obscured

Ç[biguherîne]

  • ç- → çûn
  • çak good
  • çakêt m jacket
  • çalak active; ~î f activity
  • çand f culture; ~î cultural
  • çandin çîn- v.t. to plant
  • çap f printing; ~ kirin v.t. to print, publish; ~emanî f printed matter, the press; ne~kirî unpublished; ~xane f printshop
  • çar four
  • çarçove f framework
  • çare f remedy; bê~ helpless, poor; ~nûs f remedy; bi ~nûsa … ve in the interests of; ~ser f solution; ~ser kirin v.t. to solve, resolve
  • çarmergî cross-legged
  • çarşef, çarşev f sheet, woman’s covering; ~ kişandin v.t. to put a sheet (on a bed); ~ li xwe kirin v.t. to put on a veil, cover oneself
  • çav m eye; ~ girtin v.t. to close the eyes; ~erênî f expectation; ~ên … xistin v.t. to attract the attention of; bi ~ekî nebaş nêrîn to have a low opinion of; ~êş f eye ailment; ~kanî f source, wellspring; ~şin blue-eyed
  • çavnihêrî bûn v.i. to expect, to look expectantly
  • çawa(n) how?: çawan bibe bila bibe be that as it may; ~ heba somehow or other; ~ ku as; çawahî f quality
  • çax f time: wê çaxê at that time
  • çay f tea; ~dan f teapot; ~xane f teahouse
  • çe = çê
  • çefî = kefî
  • çek f weapon; ~dar armed
  • çeleng cute, attractive, good-looking
  • çem m river
  • çen f armpit
  • çend (following word construed as pl.) how many?; several: di çend cihan de in several places; çend hevalên min several of my friends; ~ik û çend (+ sing.) several: çendik û çend roj e… it’s been several days since…; û ~ - odd: bi pêncih û çend salên xwe ve in his fifty-odd years; ~ê for a while
  • çeng f claw; ~ê li … de cih kirin v.t. to sink the claw into
  • çengel m hook
  • çeng kirin v.t. to throw, hurl
  • çente m suitcase
  • çep left; wrong: ew min çep fahm dike he misunderstands me
  • çeper f shield, barricade
  • çepik xistin li v.t. to applaud for
  • çer what?
  • çer ku (conj.) as soon as
  • çerçî m peddler
  • çerkez Circassian
  • çerm m skin, leather; ~în leathern
  • çerx f wheel
  • çetel m fork, forked
  • çewsandin v.t. to exploit
  • çewt crooked, awry, wrong
  • çê right, okay; ~-bûn v.i. to be born; to be right: çê nabe tu wisa bikî it’s not right for you to act thus; çê dibe ku ez biçim? is it okay for me to go?; ~- kirin v.t. to give birth to, to make, fix, repair, keep: wî çê dikine binê zindanê they keep him in the dungeon, min di serê xwe e plana ku … çêdikir I was making a plan in my head to …
  • çêlik the young of any animal, puppy, kitten, cub, etc.
  • çêl f subject, topic; ~î kirin v.t. to talk about
  • çêre f grazing, pasturage
  • çêrîn v.i. to graze
  • çêtir better
  • çi1 what?; ~ bigire practically speaking, pretty much
  • çi2 no; ~ tiştî nothing
  • çiçek = çîçek
  • çiftexas m cotton batiste
  • çik exhausted; ~ bûn v.i. to become exhausted, to sink down (into snow)
  • çikandin v.t. to drip; to plant (tree); to push s.th. in as far as it will go
  • çikîn v.t. to plant; to crackle; to dry up (mother’s milk): şîrê berê wê çikî her breast milk dried up
  • çiko, çiku because
  • çil1 forty
  • çil2 greedy
  • çil3 only in çil û çiya hills and mountains
  • çile f the coldest period of winter; ~ya paşîn January; ~ya pêşîn December
  • çilmisandin v.t. to make wither
  • çilmîsîn v.i. to wither
  • çilvilîn = çilwilîn
  • çilwilîn v.i. to gleam
  • çima why?
  • çimkî because
  • çiqas how much
  • çiqçiqî kirin v.t. to rip to shreds
  • çir, çira why?
  • çira f lamp, stove
  • çirandin çirîn- v.t. to tear, tear up
  • çirav f muck
  • çire why
  • çiriya paşê/paşîn f November
  • çiriya pêşê/pêşîn f October
  • çirisîn = çirûsîn
  • çirûsîn v.i. to sparkle, shine, glow
  • çirûsk f spark
  • çiv trick, game; ~ dan xwe v.t. to zigzag
  • çivanok f a formula used in storytelling
  • çivik, çivîk bird, sparrow
  • çiwal m sack
  • çiya m mountain; ~yî mountaineer, hillbilly
  • çîçek f flower
  • çîl bright
  • çîmen m grassy meadow
  • çîp f calf (of the leg)
  • çîrîn v.i. to creak
  • çîrok f story; ~van storyteller
  • çîya = çiya
  • çîzçîzik f buzz
  • ço m stick
  • çog = çok2
  • çok1 m stream
  • çok2 f knee
  • çol f desert, wilderness
  • çong = çok2
  • çûçik f bird
  • çûk f bird
  • çûn ç- (subj. stem ç-/her-) v.i. to go
  • çûr a type of sheep
  • çûyîn v.i. to go

D[biguherîne]

  • da1 a dialectal variant of de1
  • da2 a preverb that forms compounds,

generally indicating ‘down’

  • da-anîn v.t. to set down, establish: Mam

Reşîd satil danî û li dora xwe mêze kir Uncle Rashid set the bucket down and looked around himself; ~ li xwe (+ subj.) to lower oneself, deign, bring oneself to do s.th.: gelek ji wan jî li xwe danaynin bi vî zimanê xweş û şêrîn bipeyivin many of them can’t even bring themselves to speak this nice, sweet language

  • da-avêtin v.t. to put together, throw

together

  • da-çikandin v.t. to set up, plant (tree,

flag, &c.)

  • dad f justice; ~geh f court; ~gêr m judge
  • da-dan v.t. to place, put in, install; to

light (fire)

  • da-gerandin v.t. to turn, send back
  • dagirker m occupier
  • da-girtin v.t. to occupy, take over, to

take down; guhên xwe ~ v.t. to prick up one’s ears

  • dagirtî well-built
  • dagîr kirin v.t. to occupy
  • dahl f grove
  • dahn m season, period of time
  • da-hûrandin v.t. to research, investigate
  • daîre f office
  • da-ketin v.i. to fall down, come down,

swoop down, subside; to be lowered (gaze); ~ bi to take up, involve oneself with

  • da ku (+ subj.) in order that
  • da-kutan v.t. to shake
  • da-liqandin v.t. to string up, hang
  • da-liqiyan v.i. to hang, dangle
  • da-mezran v.i. to be set up, established;

~din da-mezrîn- v.t. to set up, establish

  • dan1 = dahn
  • dan2 d- v.t. to give
  • da-nan da-nê- v.t. to lay, put down
  • da-niştin da-niş- v.i. to sit down, alight
  • danîn = da-anîn
  • danûstendin f transaction, exchange;

relation

  • da-qurtandin qurtên- v.t. to swallow
  • dar f tree, stick, gallows; bi ~ ve kirin

v.t. to hang; bi ~ da-kirin v.t. to hang; ~istan f forest

  • dar m wood
  • darbe f blow; ~ xwarin v.t. to suffer a

blow

  • darik m stick
  • darîn wooden
  • davêtin = da-avêtin
  • da‘we f legal case
  • da‘wet f festive occasion
  • dawî f end; ~ anîn v.t. to put an end to;

~ hatin v.i. to end, come to an end; ~n (adj) last, final

  • dax f brand; sorrow
  • da-xistin v.t. to take down: polîsan

tabeleya me daxist the police took

  • down our sign
  • daxwaz f request; ~ kirin v.t. to request,

beseech; ~î f desire

  • dayik m mother; ji ~ê bûn v.i. to be

born; ~tî f motherhood, maternity

  • dayin = dan
  • dayîn = dan
  • de1 postposition forms the second part

of a number of circumpositions, generally indicating stationary position in or at; see the prepositional element

  • de2 (precedes an imperative): de were

come on!

  • defter f register, roll, notebook
  • deh ten
  • dehl f valley; orchard
  • dehol f drum
  • dek f trick
  • delal dear, beloved
  • delîve f opportunity, occasion
  • dem1 f time, season; ~a ku (conj.)

when; ~dirêj long-term; ~kurt shortterm; ~ û dewran f olden times

  • dem2 steeped; ~ girtin to steep (of tea)
  • demançe f pistol
  • deng m voice, sound, noise; ~bêj m

singer

  • dengiz sea
  • depdepe wooden
  • deq1 f part, region, place: di vê deqê de

in this place

  • deq2 m tattoo; ~ bi ~ exactly alike
  • deqe = deqîqe
  • deqîqe f minute
  • der1 f place; ~ek(ê) somewhere; ev ~

KURMANJI KURDISH 206 here; li vê ~ê here; li ku ~ê where?

  • der2 outside; ~eke foreign: welatên
  • dereke foreign countries
  • der3 f door
  • der-anîn v.t. to take out
  • derb f blow
  • derbas passing, passsage; ~ bûn v.i. to

pass, to pass by (ji); ~ kirin v.t. to spend (time); ~î hundur bûn to enter

  • derbaz = derbas
  • derbeder bûn v.i. to be driven from

pillar to post

  • der-bûn di to burst out on
  • derd m pain, trouble: her yekî derdekî

wan hebû everyone had some trouble

  • derece f degree: di çi dereceyê de to

what degree?

  • dereng late, long time; ~ man v.i. to lag

behind, be late

  • derewîn lying, false
  • derêxistin = derxistin
  • derfend f opportunity
  • derheq: di ~(ê) … de about, concerning
  • deriya = derya
  • derizî cracked
  • derî1 m door; ~yê xwe girtin li ber to

close one’s door to; li ~ dan v.t. to knock at a door; ~ girtin v.t. to shut a

  • door; ~ li ser xwe girtin to shut oneself

up

  • derî2 (prep) outside of
  • der-ketin v.i. to go in/out, to turn out to

be; ~ li dijî … v.i. to oppose; ji gîra … ~ to fail to catch

  • derman m (obl dermên) remedy, treatment,

medicine; ~geh pharmacy; ~ kirin v.t. to treat

  • derpê m underpants; longjohns
  • ders f lesson; ~ dan v.t. to give lessons
  • der û dor environs; ~a (prep.) around
  • derve outside; ~karî external: wezîrê
  • dervekarî minister of foreign affairs;

~yî (prep.) outside of: derveyî welêt outside of the country; (adj.) foreign; ji ~ from outside

  • der-xistin v.t. to bring out (publication),

to issue (an order), to cast out; ji hev ~ to to tell apart, to discern

  • der-xwendin -xwîn- v.t. to take to task
  • derya f sea; ~ya Sipî the Mediterranean

Sea

  • derzî f crack, split; see also şûjin û
  • derzî
  • dest1 m hand; ~ bi ~ continuously; ~

bûn ji to lose, to be left without:

  • destên me ji te bûne we have been left

without you; ~ dan hevdu v.t. to join hands; ~ kêşan ji v.t. to let go of; ~ kirin bi (+ inf.) v.t. to start; ~ê xwe kişandin ji to give up, abandon; bi ~ xistin to attain, obtain; di ~ên … for … to do: di destên min de bi tenê razan mabû the only thing I could do was go to sleep; ji ~ kirin v.t. to lose; ji bin destê … by, by means of …; xwe avêtin ~ û lingên kesekî to throw oneself at someone’s feet, to beg; xwe dan ~ to let oneself be captured

  • dest2 f group, set
  • destan f story
  • destbirak m blood brother
  • deste f group, set
  • destenan loaf of bread
  • destik m oar
  • destmal f handkerchief
  • destpêk f beginning
  • destteng poor
  • destûr f order, command; ~a ziman

grammar

  • destvala empty-handed
  • destve-înan v.t. to catch
  • deşt f plain
  • dev m mouth; entrance; ~ berdan ji to

leave, to give up, to stop: te dev ji kêşana cixarê berdaye? have you stopped smoking cigarettes?; dev ji min berde, ez bêxew im leave me KURDISH-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 207 alone—I’m sleepy; ~ di … da cî kirin to bite down on; (li) ~ (û) dora prep. all around

  • devendeştî f brush, brambles
  • deverû face down
  • devî f bush
  • devken f smile
  • devkî oral: edebiyata devkî oral literature
  • devojenî hev bûn li ser to squabble

with each other over

  • devok f accent
  • dewam kirin v.t. to continue
  • dewar m domestic animal, cattle
  • dewir = dewr; f circle; ~ dan v.t. to

circle

  • dewlemend rich, wealthy
  • dewlet f state: ~a Frensayê the state of

France

  • dewr f age, time, epoch; role; ~ leyistin

to play a role; ~an f age, time

  • dews f place, spot, trace
  • dexisîn v.i. to be jealous (ji of)
  • deyn m debt; ~ dan to pay a debt; ~dar

indebted; ~ê indebted to

  • dê1 f (const diya) mother
  • dê2 future auxiliary + subj. for future

tense

  • dê3 3rd-person sing. present indicative

of hatin

  • dêl1 f tail
  • dêl2 f female animal; ~egur f female

wolf; ~ik f female wolf or dog, bitch

  • dêrîn ancient, of long standing
  • dêv1 m demon
  • dêv2 = dev
  • dêw = dêv1
  • di … de ccmp. in: di salên 70’î de in the

’70s; di destên min de in my hands

  • di … re ccmp. by, via, upon: bi bihîstina
  • deng re upon hearing the noise;

av di tifingên wan re dihate xwar water ran down their rifles

  • di … ve ccmp. through
  • dí- habitual and progressive verbal

prefix

  • dia = dua
  • di bareya … de ccmp. about, concerning
  • dibistan f school: dibistana destpêk elementary

school

  • dicle f the Tigris River
  • didan m tooth
  • didu two; ~yan second
  • difin nostril
  • digel with; ~ ku although
  • dihanî = dianî (see anîn)
  • dijî, li (prep.) against
  • dijmin m enemy; ~atî f enmity
  • dijûn kirin v.t. to curse
  • dijwar difficult; ~î f difficulty
  • dikan f shop
  • dike nake no matter what s/he did
  • dil m heart; hope: min dil heye (+ subj.)

I hope to; ~ girtin bi to be offended by: bi çûyîna min ya hotêlê dilê xwe girtin they were offended by my going to a hotel; ~ şewitîn bi to feel sorry for: dilê midûr bi vî xortê çeleng û evîndarê xwendinê dişewite the principal feels sorry for this attractive young man so avid to study; ~êşî f heartache; ~germ warm, hearty, kind; ~geş happy; ~nexweş sorry, upset, ill at ease; ~pak pure of heart; ~qayim confident; ~qayimî f confidence; ~soz sympathetic; ~şa happy, glad; ~şewat heart-rending; ~şikestî f

  • disappointment; ~şikestî kirin v.t. to
  • disappoint, to dishearten; ~tengî f

sadness, loneliness; ~xwaz fond of; bêî ~ê against the wishes of; ne bi ~ê min bû it did not appeal to me

  • dilêr intrepid
  • dilnîya assured, confident
  • dilop m drop
  • dilovan kind, affectionate, dear; ~î f

affection; death (euphemism): berî KURMANJI KURDISH 208

  • dilovaniya nivîskarê dilovan bi salekê

a year before the dear writer passed away

  • diltezîn ???
  • din other
  • di nav … de ccmp. in the midst of: di

nav wî erdî de in the midst of that land

  • dinê = dinyayê (see dinya)
  • dinya f (obl. dinyayê, dinê) the world,

the weather: dinya pirr sar bû the weather was very cold; bi ~yê hatin v.i. to be born; ~dîtî worldly, sophisticated

  • diran (dial. var.) = didan
  • dirb track, path
  • dirêj long, lengthy; ~ ajotin to last a

long time; ~ kirin to lengthen; ~î f length; ~î … kirin to hand to …;

  • dest ~ … kirin to stretch the hand out

to

  • diriyan v.i. to be ripped
  • divabû, diviyabû (impersonal + pres.

subj.) had to: diviyabû ku tiştekî bikin they had to do something; (impersonal + past cond.) ought to have …, was supposed to have …, would have to …: diviyabû Sovyet ji Îranê derketa the Soviet ought to (was supposed to) have withdrawn from Iran, divabû ku ew kêzik bihata kuştin that bug would have to be killed

  • divê (impersonal + pres. subj.) ought to
  • dixan f smoke
  • diyar clear; ~î f clarity
  • diyarî f gift
  • diyarbekir f Diyarbekir
  • diz m thief
  • dizî secret, concealed; bi ~ secretly,

stealthily; ~tî f secret

  • dî other; yê ~ the other one
  • dîl m prisoner; ~ girtin v.t. to take prisoner;

~î f imprisonment

  • dîlan f dance, dancing
  • dîmen f view, sight, aspect
  • dîn1 m religion; ~itî f religiosity; ~î,

~dar religious; ~perwer religious

  • dîn2 crazy, mad; ~ bûn li ser to go crazy

over; ~ kirin to drive s.o. crazy; ~ik slightly crazy, “screw loose”; ~itî f madness

  • dîn3 f gaze, attention
  • dîrok f story, history; ~î historical
  • dîsa(n) again, (+ neg) still…not
  • dîtin bîn- v.t. to see
  • dîwan f reception room; collected works

of a poet; ~çe f (obl ~çê) small reception room

  • dîwar f (obl dîwêr) wall
  • dîz knee
  • dîzik f pan
  • do = dû
  • dol valley
  • dom kirin v.t. to continue
  • doman v.i. to continue
  • domandin domîn- v.t. to continue
  • dor1 f environs; li ~a (prep.) around;

~hêl f environs, parts, region; ~a … girtin v.t. to surround

  • dor2 m turn; ~alî f circumference
  • dorandor m circumference; li ~ê (prep.)

all around

  • dost friend; ~ane friendly; ~ayetî f

friendship

  • doş- → dotin
  • doşab m/f grape molasses ???
  • doşeg f mattress
  • doşik = doşeg
  • dot f daughter; ~mam f cousin
  • dotin doş- v.t. to milk
  • doz f cause, reason; aim, ideal; revenge;

~a … kirin to aim for; ~ger vengeful, litigant

  • du two
  • du‘a f prayer; ~ kirin, ~ xwendin v.t. to

pray

  • ducar kirin v.t. to repeat
  • dudil hesitant, of two minds; ~î f hesita-

KURDISH-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 209 tion

  • duduyan (dial. var.) = diduyan
  • duh(î) yesterday
  • dunya = dinya
  • durû hypocritical; ~tî f hypocrisy
  • duşemb f Monday
  • duv = dû
  • duwemîn second: şerê dinyayê yê
  • duwemîn World War II
  • duyem(în) second
  • dû1 behind; ~dirêj of long standing; ~re

then, afterwards; li ~ hev re one after the other; li ~ xwe behind oneself; bi ~ … ketin v.i. to pursue

  • dû2 m smoke
  • dûkel f smoke
  • dûman f smoke
  • dûpişk f scorpion
  • dûr far; ~ xistin v.t. to throw away, exile;

bi ~ ketin to go/get away; ~ nêzîk sooner or later; ~ahî f remoteness,

  • distance; ~bîn farsighted
  • dûre → dû1
  • dûrebîn f binoculars
  • dûv m tail, end
  • dûvre = dûre

E[biguherîne]

  • ebeden (+ neg.) never, not at all
  • ‘ecem Persian
  • ‘ecêb strange; ~mayî dumbfounded, stupified
  • edebiyat f literature; ~van literateur
  • edebî literary
  • ‘edilandin v.t. to ameliorate, make better
  • edîb m litérateur
  • efendî m westernized gentleman; ~tî f gentlemanliness
  • efraz up
  • ‘efû f amnesty; ~ya giştî general amnesty
  • ‘egal f headband
  • eger if
  • ekîb f team
  • ekol f school
  • ekonomîk economic
  • elbik f wooden bucket
  • elektrîk f flashlight
  • elem pain
  • ‘eleqedar kirin v.t. to concern
  • ‘eleyh: di ‘eleyhê … da ccmp. against; ~dar m supporter; ~darî kirin v.t. to support
  • elman German; ~î German (language)
  • em (obl. me) we
  • emanet m deposit, anything held on loan or for safekeeping
  • emir1 f order, command
  • ‘emir2 m age
  • emperyalîsm f imperialism
  • ‘en‘anetî traditional
  • endam m member
  • enerjî f energy
  • ‘enî f forehead; front (mil.)
  • enstîtu f institute
  • ‘eql m mind, reason
  • ‘erd f earth; li erdê dan to throw to the ground
  • erdim f region
  • ‘erdhêj f earthquake
  • ‘ereb Arab; ~î Arabic
  • ‘erebe f cart, carriage, any wheeled vehicle
  • ‘erebistan f Arabia
  • erê yea, yes
  • erk f responsibility
  • ermen Armenian
  • ermîşim silk
  • ernewid Albanian
  • erz f hope; ~a … şikandin v.t. to dash s.o.’s hopes
  • erzan cheap
  • ‘erzihal f description, report, petition
  • erzerom f Erzurum
  • esas m foundation, basis; ~î basic, essential, original
  • eser f work, monument: esereke edebî a literary work

KURMANJI KURDISH 210

  • esil m origin; bi ~ê xwe originally
  • esilzade aristocratic
  • ‘esker m soldier; ~î f the military; (adj) military
  • ‘esman = azman
  • esmer olive complected
  • ‘eşîr f tribe; ~tî tribal
  • eşkere clear, obvious
  • eşk û teşk tangled (hair)
  • ev (obl. masc. sing. vî, obl. fem. sing. vê, obl. pl. van) he, she, it, they, this, these
  • evîn f love, affection; ~dar desirous, in love: ew evîndarê xwendinê bû he was desirous of studying
  • evqasî so much
  • ew (obl. masc. sing. wî, obl. fem. sing. wê, obl. pl. wan, pl. const. ewên) he, she, it, they, that, those
  • ‘ewd m revenge
  • ewel, ewelî first
  • ewên pl. const. of ew; ~ din the others
  • ewir = ewr
  • ewle security, reliance, assurance; ~ bûn to be secure
  • ‘ewr m cloud
  • ewraq (pl) papers
  • ewrûpa f Europe; ~yî European
  • ewrûpî European
  • ‘ewt f bark; ~e ~ constant or repeated barking; ~în v.i. to bark
  • ‘eynî the same: di eynî salê de in the same year
  • ey O (vocative)
  • ‘eyndîwer ‘Ayn Dīwār, a small place in Syria south of Cizre
  • eyûb Job; ~î Job-like
  • eywan f salon, sitting room
  • ez (obl. min) I
  • ezbenî sir (mode of polite address)
  • ‘ezman m sky, heaven
  • ‘ezîz dear
  • ‘Ezrayîl Azrael, the angel of death

Ê[biguherîne]

  • ê1 = yê
  • ê2 future auxiliary + subj. for future

tense

  • êdî now; still, yet
  • êgir → agir
  • êh: gewro êh berçavara nedihat

“Whitey” didn’t notice it

  • ên = yên
  • êrîş = hêriş
  • êş f pain, ache; ~andin êşîn- v.t. to hurt,

cause pain, trouble; ~iyan êş- v.i. to hurt, suffer pain: ser û çavê te neêşe “may your head and eye not suffer pain,” thank you

  • êvar f evening
  • êxur m stable
  • êzing m firewood

F[biguherîne]

  • fahm (dial. var.) = fehim
  • fal f augury, omen, fate; ~ vekirin to

predict: ev fala ko herkesî ji min re vedikir, wusan derneket the prediction everyone was making for me did not turn out like that

  • fam (dial. var.) = fehim
  • faqa under (prep.); ketin ~ to fall beneath
  • faris pl Persians; ~î f Persian (language)
  • faşîst fascist
  • fedakar, fedekar self-sacrificing, devoted;

~î f self-sacrifice

  • fedî f embarrassment; ~ kirin to be embarrassed
  • fed-kirin v.t. to look, watch
  • fehim kirin v.t. to understand
  • felat f freedom, liberation
  • felsefe f philosophy;
  • felsefî philosophical
  • fen f trick; bi ~ û fîtan by hook or by

crook

  • fener f lamp
  • feodalî feudal
  • feqeh m theology student
  • feqî Muslim cleric; ~tî f the clerical pro-

KURDISH-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 211

  • fession
  • feqîr poor; ~tî f poverty
  • fer one, single item (of a pair)
  • ferheng f culture: wezareta ferhengê

ministry of culture; dictionary

  • ferman f order, command; ~a … derxistin

v.t. to issue an order for …

  • fermî formal
  • fermo please (said when offering s.th.)
  • ferq f difference: çi ferqa me û cîranên

me dimîne? what difference is left between us and our neighbors?; ~iyet f distinction

  • ferz kirin v.t. to assume
  • fetwa legal opinion
  • fex f trap; xistin fexê to put in a trap
  • feyde f benefit, profit; bi ~ beneficial
  • fêde f (const. fêda) benefit: ji bo fêda

xwe for one’s one benefit, in one’s own interests

  • fêhm = fehim
  • fêlbazî f cunning
  • fêre bûn v.i. to learn; fêreyî … bûn to

learn s.th., to become accustomed to s.th.

  • fêrî … bûn v.i. to learn: ew di demeke

kurt de fêrî tirkî bû he learned Turkish in a short time

  • fihêt kirin v.t. to assess, to price
  • fikar(e) f worry
  • fikir f idea, thought; ~în v.i. to think,

contemplate

  • filitîn ji v.i. to get rid of
  • filosof m philosopher
  • find f candle
  • fir- → firîn
  • firaq m dishes
  • firar kirin to escape, to flee
  • firavîn f lunch, midday meal
  • firax (pl) dishes, pots and pans; ~ şustin

v.t. to wash the dishes

  • fireh open, wide, spacious; ~ kirin v.t.

to open; dil ~ kirin to gladden the heart

  • firiyan v.i. to fly away
  • firîn fir- v.i. to jump, fly: Mûsa ji kêfan

difire Musa is jumping for joy

  • firîşte m angel
  • firk a rapid motion
  • firne f bakery
  • firotin froş- v.t. to sell
  • firq = ferq
  • firtone f storm, gale
  • fitil dan v.t. to twist and turn
  • fîstan m dress
  • fort m boast
  • fransiz m/f French (person)
  • frensî f French (language)
  • frensizî French (language)
  • froş- → firotin
  • fursend f opportunity
  • fûrîn v.i. to bubble, gurgle, boil

G[biguherîne]

  • galegal f conversation
  • galon m gallon
  • gamêş ox
  • garan f herd of cattle
  • garis m millet; ~ê misrî corn
  • garsîn f village square
  • gav1 f time; moment, instant; ~a (ku)

when (sub. conj.); ~ û saet at all times; di ~ê da in an instant; li ~ê de at that moment

  • gav2 m step, pace; ~ kirin v.t. to step,

cross; ~ avetin to take steps: edebiyata kurdî di van salên dawî de

  • gavine baş avetiye Kurdish literature

has taken some good steps in these recent years

  • gavan cowherd; ~tî f herding
  • gazin = gazind
  • gazind m rebuke, complaint; ~ kirin v.t.

to rebuke, reproach; ~ok rebuking, complaining

  • gazî1 m warrior
  • gazî2 f call, shout; ~ kirin v.t. to call,

speak to

  • geh when; geh … geh sometimes …

KURMANJI KURDISH 212 sometimes -geh suffix of place

  • gehandin (dial. var.) = gihandin
  • gehîştin (dial. var.) = gihîştin
  • gel much, many, most; ~ejmar plural;

~ek(î) very, a lot, many: ~ek ji wan many of them; ~êrî popular

  • gelemper general, public; bi ~î mostly,
  • generally
  • gelî m mountain pass, canyon
  • gelo whether; interrogative particle, “I

wonder if”

  • gemar f filth
  • gemî f ship
  • genim m wheat
  • ger if; ~çi even if, although
  • gerandin gerîn- v.t. to turn, rotate; to

take for a walk; to produce

  • gerden f neck
  • gerdenî f necklace
  • gerdûnî universal
  • gerek necessary, should, must, ought to;

~ bûn to be necessary

  • geremol f complexity, confusion
  • gerihan (dial. var.) = geriyan
  • geriyan v.i. to go around, roam around;

~ li (pey) to look for

  • germ warm, hot: ~a havînê the heat of

summer; ~a, ~ayî f warmth; ~î f warmth

  • germanya f Germany
  • gerş dirty
  • geş red, blossoming, flaming, happy; ~

bûn to blossom, flame up (fire), be happy; ~î f happiness, flourishment

  • gevde f mange; bi ~ mangy
  • gevez crimson
  • gevizandin v.t. to make writhe; xwe ~ to

roll oneself around

  • gevizîn v.i. to writhe
  • gewde m body; ~ê xwe dan hev to curl

up; ~ê xwe girtin to hug oneself

  • gewr light grey, whitish; ~o “whitey”
  • gewre large, big
  • gêj dizzy, spinning; ~ bûn v.i. to be

dizzy; ~ kirin v.t. to make dizzy, make lightheaded: germa havînê tu

  • gêj kiribûyî the heat of summer had

made you dizzy

  • gêr crooked, uneven
  • gêrik ant
  • gêrt lethargic
  • ghêj- → gihîştin
  • giha = giya
  • gihan gihê- v.i. to reach; ~din -gihînv.

t. to deliver; xwe gihandine ser to

  • get oneself to
  • gihaştin gehîj- v.i. to reach, arrive; to

mature

  • gihîştin gihîj-/gîj-/gihêj-/ghêj- v.i. to

reach, arrive

  • gihîj- → gihîştin
  • gijgijîn v.i. to be knit (brow)
  • gincir ???
  • gir m hill
  • gir m rancorous, grudging; ~-girtin v.t.

to have a grudge

  • gir- → girtin
  • giramgîr respectful
  • giramî f respect
  • giran heavy, deep (voice); serious,
  • grave, plodding; ~î f gravity, weightiness;

~biha precious, expensive; ~ firotin v.t. to sell at a high price, overcharge

  • girav f island
  • gircî gircî frozen solid
  • girê f knot, tumor; ~-dan v.t. to tie, to

connect: navê bajêr li cem min bi navê nanê firnê, şekir û helawê hatibû

  • girêdan for me the word ‘city’ was

connected to the words ‘bakery bread,’ ‘sugar,’ and ‘halvah’; pişta xwe ~ dan bi to turn one’s back on, to be unmindful of

  • girêkî Greek
  • girik f conundrum; hillock
  • giriyan v.i. to weep

KURDISH-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 213

  • girî m weeping, crying
  • girîn v.i. to weep; f weeping
  • girîng important; ~î f importance
  • girs great; bi ~î greatly
  • girtin gir- v.t. to catch, seize
  • girtîgeh f prison
  • girtîxane f prison, place of detention
  • giştî general, public; totally
  • givaştin givêş- v.t. to press, squeeze
  • givegiv f gentle blowing of the wind
  • givîn v.i. to roar (wind)
  • giya f grass, greenery
  • giyan m soul
  • gîj- = gihîjgîr

f grasp; xistin ~ û helboqê v.t. to ensnare

  • gîrodarî f struggle
  • gîr û helboq f trap, entrapment
  • gîya = giya
  • gol f lake: ~a Wanê Lake Van
  • golik m calf
  • gopal m stick; ~ das sickle
  • gor1 f method, manner, way; li ~(a) …

according to, in the opinion of

  • gor2 f grave; ~istan f cemetery
  • gorî f sacrifice; ez bi ~ please
  • gorn f tomb
  • goşt m meat
  • gotar f article
  • gotin bêj- v.t. to say: tu bêjî nebêjî no

matter what you say; f word: bi ~eke din in other words; ji X re Y ~ to call X Y: gelo mirov kane ji berhemên ku bi zimanên din têne nivîsandin re bibêje berhemên kurdî? I wonder if can one call works that are written in other languages Kurdish works?; ~xweş well-spoken

  • gotûbêj f talk, conversation
  • gov f barn
  • govend f Kurdish line dance; ~ê girtin

v.t. to dance a line dance

  • goya you’d think
  • gr- = gir- (girtin)
  • guçik m/f ??? ear
  • guh m ear; ~ dan v.t. to listen; bi ~
  • girtin v.t. to grab by the ear; ~dar m

listener; ~darî kirin v.t. to listen; ber

  • guhan ketin v.i. to be heard
  • guhan m udder
  • guhar m/f pearl ??? earring???
  • guharîn v.i. to change
  • guhartin guhêr- v.t. to change
  • guhastin = guhaztin
  • guhaztin guhêz- v.t. to transport, carry,

move; mala xwe ~ to move one’s home

  • guhdar m listener; ~î kirin v.t. to listen
  • guherandin guherîn- v.t. to change
  • guhertin (dial. var.) = guhartin
  • guj fierce (storm)
  • gujîn v.i. to howl
  • gul f flower
  • gulan f May
  • gule f bullet; ~baran kirin v.t. to fire,

open fire on

  • gulik f flower
  • gulî m braid, tress
  • gulle = gule
  • gulte f clump
  • gund m village; ~î m/f villager; ~îtî f

rusticity

  • guneh m sin, fault; ~karî f crime, offense,

fault; avêtina ~ên xwe expiation for one’s sins

  • gungilî thick, matted
  • gunîçin ??? a thick protective mat

against thorns, etc.

  • gupe gup kirin v.t. to pound (heart)
  • gur1 m wolf
  • gur2 strong, powerful; ~ kirin to fill
  • gurdarî f attention; ~ kirin to pay rapt

attention

  • gurg = gur1
  • gurî bald, scabby
  • gurîn f clamor, noise
  • gurmîn gurm- v.i. to make a loud noise
  • gurz m hank of hair

KURMANJI KURDISH 214

  • guvahî f testimony
  • guvaştin (dial. var.) = givaştin
  • guveguv (dial. var.) = givegiv

H[biguherîne]

  • ha = han
  • hakim m ruler, governor
  • hal m condition, state; ji ~ ketin to be

exhausted, worn out

  • halan f yell, shout
  • halhalk (dial. var.) = al’al
  • han (in constr. w/ word it modifies) this

very, that very: wê roja han on that very day; ev tirsa han bi serpêhatiya te girêdayî bû this very fear was connected to your experience

  • hatin yê-/wer- (v.i., pres. ind. têm, neg.

nayêm, pres. subj. bêm/werim) to come; (+ inf.) passive

  • hatî f future
  • havêtin (dial. var.) = avêtin
  • havîn f summer
  • havîtin (dial. var.) = avîtin
  • hawîrdor f surroundings, environment;

~ên wê those around him

  • hawurdor (dial. var.) = hawîrdor
  • hay f feeling, awareness (ji of), attention:

~a min jê tune bû I had no awareness of it; ~dar aware

  • hazir ready, present; ~î f preparation; ~î

kirin to make preparations

  • heb1 m grain, bit; pill: ~ekî aqil a grain

of sense; ~ek(î) a little, a bit, slightly

  • heb2 f a single thing, item, individual,

one

  • hebandin v.t. to love
  • hebe nebe one way or another
  • hebkî = hebekî (see heb)
  • hebûn v.i. to exist: di zimanê me de pir

gotinên kurdî hene ku me nebihîstine there are many Kurdish words in our language we haven’t heard; (with subject + possessive) to have; hebû tunebû once upon a time

  • hechecik martin, swallow
  • hecûm f attack, assault
  • heçê whatever, whoever
  • hedam sense ???
  • hedef f goal
  • heft seven; ~e f week: bi ~yekê within a

week; ~eyî weekly; ~ê seventy

  • heger if
  • hej movement; li ~ û liv û weş ketin v.i.

to toss and turn

  • hej = hez
  • hejandin v.t. to shake: wî serê xwe hejand
  • he shook his head; min destê wî
  • hejand I shook his hand
  • hejar poor: ~ên kurdan the poor Kurds
  • hejiyan v.i. to move, shake
  • hejîk love, affection
  • hejîn = hejiyan
  • hejmar f number, issue (of a journal)
  • hejmartin hejmêr- v.t. to count, enumerate:

dihatin hijmartin le ser her deh tiliyên destan they could be counted on all ten fingers of the hands

  • hejmêr- → hejmartin
  • hek m right; di ~ê prep. concerning,

about

  • heke if
  • hel m protected place
  • helaw f halvah
  • helbest f poetry, verse: ~a serbest free

verse; ~kar m poet; ~van m poet

  • helbet of course
  • hel-bijartin v.t. to select, choose
  • hel-dirandin v.t. to tear apart
  • heleb f Aleppo
  • heliyan v.i. to melt, disappear
  • heliz an herb
  • helk û bêhn breath
  • hel-pekandin li xew v.t. to rouse from

sleep

  • helqe f ring
  • hem…hem both…and
  • hema thus
  • heman that very
  • hember equal; ~î f equality; li ~î

KURDISH-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 215 towards, vis-à-vis, across from

  • hembêz = hemêz
  • hemd m will, volition; bê ~ reluctantly,

involuntarily; hatin ser ~ê xwe to come to one’s senses

  • hemdemî contemporary
  • hemêşe always
  • hemêz, hembêz f bosom, embrace; ~

kirin v.t. to embrace

  • hemî = hemû
  • hemmanê scarcely, barely
  • hemû all, every; ~ya(n) all of them
  • hengam time: di ~ekê de at one and the

same time, at once

  • heps f prison, imprisonment; ~xane f

prison

  • her every; ~ û ~ always and ever; ~ku

… -tir the more … the more: dengê ji ezmên herku diçû bêtir dibû the sound from the sky kept getting louder; ~ tenê at least: her tenê çend heftiyan carekê at least once every few weeks

  • her- → çûn
  • herbî f war department
  • herd valley ???
  • herehereyî worldly strife, turmoil
  • herejor steep
  • herê = erê
  • herêm f district, region
  • herf f letter of the alphabet
  • herikîn v.i. to move, to flow
  • herimandin v.t. to ruin, make a mess of:

wî jiyan li wan herimandiye it has ruined their lives

  • herî1 very, exceedingly, most (superlative

prefix)

  • herî2 f mud
  • hertim always; ~î usual
  • herweha thus, so also
  • herwiha (dial. var.) = herweha
  • hes f feeling, emotion; ~asiyet f sensitivity
  • hesibandin v.t. to count, take into consideration:

ew xwe weke kurd nahesibînin they don’t count themselves as Kurds

  • hesin m iron; ~gêr m blacksmith; ~î

made of iron; ~ker m blacksmith

  • hesiyan/hesîn v.i. to feel; ~ bi to perceive,

be aware of

  • hesp m horse
  • hesret f pining, longing, regret; li ~a

longing for

  • hest f feeling
  • heste f lighter
  • hestik m bone
  • hestî m bone
  • heşî = êşîn
  • heşîn green; ~ahî f greenness
  • heşt eight; ~ê eighty
  • heta even; (prep.) up to, until; ~ (ku)

(conj. + neg. subj.) until: heta neyê guhartin jî dê wiha bidome until it is changed it will remain like that

  • hetanî = heta
  • hev each other, together, co-, same; ba

~ hatin to get together, cooperate; bi ~du re together; bi ~ re with each other, together; ji ~ ketin to fall apart; li ~ together; li ser ~ altogether; ~ dan v.t. to collect, put together

  • heval m/f friend; ~bend m proponent;

~tî f friendship

  • hevedudanîn v.t. to put together, to

compound

  • hevdû each other
  • hevgirtî assembled
  • hevîr m dough
  • hevkar m/f co-worker; ~î f cooperation
  • hevok f sentence; ~sazî syntax
  • hevpeyvîn f conversation
  • hevraz (dial. var.) = efraz
  • hevrîşim m silk
  • hevwelatî m/f compatriot
  • hew no more, not any more: hew dixwim

I can’t eat any more

  • hewa f air, weather; ~ guhastin v.t. to
  • have a change of climate

KURMANJI KURDISH 216

  • hewale m air
  • hewandin -hewîn- v.t. to give shelter to,

protect

  • hewcedar needy, in need; ~î f need,

necessity

  • hewe (dial. var.) = we
  • hewes f passion
  • hewg f throat
  • hewil f attempt; ~-dan v.t. to attempt
  • hewk = hewg
  • hewqas that much, so much
  • hewranî m a type of cloak; ~yekî reş a

black cloak, a sign of mourning

  • hewş f courtyard
  • hey continuously, (+ verb) to keep on
  • heya = heta for, up to, until: heya

demeke dirêj for a long time; ~ ku (conj.) while, as long as

  • heybet m fearfulness; ~girtî fearful
  • heyecan m excitement
  • heyf f pity; ~a … it’s too bad about …;

~a … hatin bi to feel sorry for: heyfa min bi te tê I feel sorry for you

  • heyhat alas!
  • heyîn v.i. to live
  • heyran amazing!, incredible!
  • heyşt eight
  • heyştê eighty
  • heyv f moon, month; ~a çarde şevê the

full moon

  • heyran … çi? what do you mean …?
  • heywan f animal
  • hez kirin ji v.t. to like, enjoy: min jê hez

kir I liked it

  • hezar thousand
  • hê still, yet
  • hêç furious, quick-tempered
  • hêdî hêdî little by little
  • hêdîka slowly, softly
  • hêj still, (with comparative) even
  • hêja valuable, worthy; ne ~ worthless
  • hêk f egg
  • hêl1 f side, direction
  • hêl2 vigor, strength, power; bi ~ vigorously,

aloud

  • hêl3 trace, track
  • hêl- → hiştin
  • hêlan v.t. to leave
  • hêlûn f bird’s nest; ~ kirin v.t. to nest,

to settle in

  • hênik cool; ~ayî f coolness
  • hêre kirin v.t. to look
  • hêriş f attack; ~ kirin/anîn/birdin v.t. to

make an attack: cendirme hêrişî ser malê dikin the gendarmes are attacking the house

  • hêrişker attacking
  • hêrs f anger; ~ kirin v.t. to anger; ~ê

ketin v.i. to get angry

  • hêsan easy; ~ kirin v.t. to facilitate,

make easy; ~î easy

  • hêsir m tear
  • hêsîr captive, prisoner
  • hêstir1 f mule
  • hêstir2 = hêsir
  • hêşîn green (of plants), bluish (of animals);

~ayî f greenery, verdure; ~î f greenery

  • hêştir f camel
  • hêt f thigh
  • hêvar = êvar
  • hêvî f hope; ~dar hopeful; bê~ hopeless;

li ~ya … bûn to wait for, be in expectation of …; (li) ~ya … man to lie in wait for …

  • hêwan f porch
  • hêwir at rest, calm
  • hêz f strength, power
  • hicûm f attack
  • hijmartin hijmêr- (dial. var.) = hejmartin
  • hikim m sovereignty, power; verdict,

judgment; hatine ser ~ to come to power; ~ dayîn to make a judgment

  • hilanî kept, preserved
  • hil-anîn (hil-în-) v.t. to take away; to

keep, preserve

  • hil-avîtin v.t. to go, stick (li … ra

KURDISH-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 217 through something)

  • hil-bijartin v.t. to choose
  • hil-dan v.t. to lift, raise
  • hil-dirandin (dial. var.) = hel-dirandin
  • hil-girtin v.t. to bear, endure; to shoulder

(a responsibility, burden)

  • hil-ketin v.i. to come about by chance
  • hil-kêşan v.i. to climb up, out
  • hil-kutan v.t. to knock, rattle
  • hilmis poke; ~ dan bi to poke
  • hil-pekandin (dial. var.) = helpekandin
  • hil-qedimîn v.i. to stand up
  • hil-şandin li ser v.t. to bring down on
  • hil-weşandin v.t. to break up, split

apart: piştî hilweşandina sîstema Sovyetê after the break-up of the Soviet system

  • hil-weşîn v.i. to break up, split apart
  • him…him both…and
  • himber (dial. var.) = hember
  • himbêz kirin v.t. to embrace
  • himêz armful; ~ kirin = himbêz kirin
  • hin some, a few, several: hin rûpel a

few pages, several pages; hin ji wan a few of them; ~ên wan some of them; ~ekan … ~ekan some … others

  • hinarok cheek
  • hind1 = hin; hinde cara hindek every

once in a while

  • hind2 f measure, extent: ji ber hindê jî to

a certain extent; ~ik slight, few, little bit; ~ikahî f minority

  • hinda prep. until
  • hindav f direction; ~a …da toward
  • hindir = hundur
  • hiner = huner
  • hingê then, at that time; therefore, for

that reason

  • hingiv m honey
  • hingî then, at that time
  • hingûr f twilight
  • hirî f wool
  • hirşiyan v.i. to fall down, spill over or

out

  • hiş m awareness, sense; ~ be be quiet!;

bi ~ intelligent, smart

  • hişin = hêşîn
  • hişk dry, solid, frozen; ~ bûn v.i. to

freeze; ~ahî f solidity, rigidity; ~asayî f dry, cold air

  • hiştin hêl- v.t. to let go, leave, allow;

Xwedê te bihêle may God preserve you!

  • hişyar awake, sober; ~ bûn v.i. to

awaken; ~ kirin v.t. to wake

  • hizandin (dial. var.) = hejandin
  • hizib f political party
  • hizir f thought, idea; li hizra … da bûn

to be thinking about …

  • hîm1 m foundation, basis; ~avêj m

founder

  • hîm2 = hîn2
  • hîn1 still, yet: ew ~ nehatiye he hasn’t

come yet; ~ bêtir even more

  • hîn2: ~ bûn v.i. to learn; ~î kirin v.t. to

teach: wê ez hînî pir tiştan kirim she taught me many things; ~î … bûn to learn how to (+ inf.)\

  • hîna = hîn1
  • hînga = hingê
  • hîs f feeling, emotion; ~ kirin v.t. to feel
  • hîştin = hiştin
  • hîv (dial. var.) = heyv
  • hîvî (dial. var.) = hêvî
  • hîz m/f skin sack
  • hogiç m mountain ram
  • hogir accustomed, intimate friend; m

environment

  • hol f environment, surroundings; xwe

gihandin ~ê to come forth, come about, arrive

  • holê thus, in this manner; in view
  • holik f hut
  • hon (dial. var.) = hun
  • honik cool; ~ kirin v.t. to cool down;

dilê xwe ~ kirin bi to console oneself with KURMANJI KURDISH 218

  • hov wild; ~îtî f wildness
  • hovan over there
  • hoy m condition, circumstance: di hoyên

teng de in narrow straits, in a tight spot

  • hozantî f poetry
  • h.p. = heta paşî etc., et al.
  • hukum m order; ~darî f rule; ~darî

kirin v.t. to rule

  • hukûmet f government
  • humanîst m humanist; ~î humanistic
  • hun (obl. we) you (pl.)
  • hundir (dial. var.) = hundur
  • hundur m inside; ~ê prep. inside of; di

~ê … de within: di ~ê deh salan de within ten years

  • huner, hiner f art, skill; ~mend m artist
  • hur free, at liberty
  • hurmetgir respectful
  • hustu m neck
  • huzûr f presence
  • hûn = hun
  • hûr1 small, little; ~ ~ in little bits, in

small pieces; ~ ~(î) bûn v.i. to be smashed to bits; ~ kirin v.t. to crumble; ~ mûr small items, little things

  • hûr2 m paunch
  • hûrik m small piece, bit, sliver; ~ ~

slight(ly)

  • hwd (her wekî din) etc.

(because the distinction between initial i and î is not consistently maintained, the two letters are alphabetized together)

I, Î[biguherîne]

  • î‘dam f execution, death sentence
  • idare kirin v.t. to direct, manage
  • îdeolojî f ideology
  • ifade f testimony
  • iflas f bankruptcy; çûne ~ v.i. to go

broke

  • î‘lan kirin v.t. to announce
  • ilham f inspiration

‘ilmî scientific

  • îlon f September
  • imkan m possibility
  • împaratorî f empire
  • imtihan f examination
  • imtiyaz f concession: imtiyaza neftê oil

concession

  • înca then, in that case
  • Îngilîstanngilîstan f England
  • îngilîz m/f English; ~î f English language
  • inkar kirin v.t. to deny
  • insan human being, one; pl people
  • inşa m composition
  • iptidaî elementary
  • îrad f objection
  • îran f Iran
  • Iraq f Iraq
  • îro, îroj today
  • îrû (dial. var.) = îro
  • îsal this year
  • îsfehanî wrought silver
  • îskenderûn f İskenderun, Alexandretta
  • islamiyet f the religion and traditional

learning of Islam

  • ispat kirin v.t. to prove, establish
  • israf f expenditure: israfeke enerjiyê an

expenditure of energy

  • israr kirin v.t. to insist
  • istifade kirin ji v.t. to make use of
  • îstgah f station

‘îsyan f rebellion

  • îş m work, affair, job: çi îşê min bi

tirkan re heye? What do I have to do with the Turks?

  • îşellah God willing, I hope
  • îşev tonight
  • işk dry
  • işkence f torture; ~ kirin bi v.t. to torture,

torment

  • işkestin (dial. var.) = şikestin
  • îtiraz f objection
  • ‘iyar m skin, pelt

J[biguherîne]

  • jahr (dial. var.) = jehr
  • jan f pain, ache; ~ dan v.t. to pain
  • jar poor; ~î f poverty
  • jehr f poison
  • jendirme f gendarmerie
  • jengorî rusty
  • jê = ji + wî/wê
  • jêhatî worthy
  • jê-kirin v.t. to excise, cut out, cut off
  • jêr down
  • jêrbar heavy laden; ~î f being heavy

laden

  • ji prep. from, to, for, with
  • ji … re ccmp. with
  • ji … ve ccmp. from
  • ji ber … ve ccmp. before
  • jibîrkirin → bîr
  • jihevdeketî fragmented, fallen apart:

civateke ~ a fragmented society

  • jimar f number
  • jin f woman, wife; ~ik f woman
  • jinûvezayin f rebirth, renaissance
  • ji weşdaketî scattered about
  • jiyan1 f life
  • jiyan2 jî- v.i. to live
  • jiyin = jiyan2
  • jî enclitic also, even, emphasizes preceding

word

  • jî- → jiyan2, jîn
  • jîn jî- v.i. to live
  • jîndar alive, living; dinya ~ the world

of the living

  • jîr talented, skillful; ~î f diligence, talent
  • jmartin jmêr- v.t. to count, to enumerate
  • jor above, up

K[biguherîne]

  • k- → kirin
  • ka (attention-getting particle): ka mêze
  • ke come, look!; ka li ku ye? now

where is it?

  • ka f straw, hay
  • kabûs f nightmare
  • kafiye (dial. var.) = qafiye
  • kal aged; m old man, grandfather; ~emêr

m elderly gentleman

  • kalîte m good quality
  • kalkabûs m nightmare demon
  • kalo m old man
  • kambax ruined, devastated; devastating;

~ kirin v.t. to ruin, devastate

  • kanê = kanî2
  • kanî1 f spring, source
  • kanî2 where is/are?
  • kanîn (dial. var.) = karîn
  • kanun pl winter months
  • kapan a narrow, steep mountain road
  • kapik f bran
  • kar1 m job, work; ~bidest m authority;

~ker m/f worker; ~ûbar m work, business, everything entailed by s.th.; ~

  • kirin to work, to penetrate; bi~ anîn

v.t. to use

  • kar2 kid (goat, deer, &c.)
  • karik kid goat
  • karîn (v.i., neg. pres. níkarim, past

(dí)karibûm, neg. past. níkaribûm, subj. (bi)karibim) to be able (+ subj. to)

  • karneval f carneval
  • karto stale
  • karxezal baby deer, fawn
  • karzan expert
  • kasik m globe
  • kastîn f howl
  • kaş m slope, hill; ~ bûn to fall backwards
  • kat kirin v.t. to divulge
  • kaxet = kaxez
  • kaxez f paper
  • kaxiz = kaxez
  • kazkaz f wail
  • kebanî f lady: kebaniya malê the lady of

the house

  • keç f girl; ~ik f little girl
  • ked f stick; ~a kesekî xwarin to get

beaten by s.o.

  • kef1 f foam: ~a sawûnê soapsuds; ~ dan

v.t. to foam

  • kURMANJI KURDISH

220

  • kef2 f palm (of the hand)
  • kefen m burial shroud; ~ kirin v.t. to

shroud

  • kefî f kefiya, Arab headdress
  • kefteleft f activity, work, enterprise
  • kej f fur; ~ da-bûn v.i. to get long fur
  • kek m elder brother
  • kel1 boiling; ~ û gerî crying and weeping
  • kel2 m bull
  • kelandin kelîn- v.t. to boil
  • kelaş m corpse, body
  • kelberû wild
  • kel f an outcropping of rock
  • kelem1 oak
  • kelem2 m thorn; obstacle, difficulty,

trick

  • kelem3 m cabbage; ~ê Brukselê Brussel

sprout

  • kelemçe f handcuff; ~ kirin v.t. to handcuff
  • kelên f opportunity, chance
  • kemîn f ambush; ~ girtin to lie in ambush
  • ken m laughter; ~iyan v.i. to laugh
  • ken- → kenîn
  • kendal f side, slope, bank
  • kengê, kengî when?
  • kenîn v.i. to laugh
  • ker1 donkey; ne ker ketiye, ne hîz

diriyaye, û ne doşab rijiyaye (prov.) “no donkey has fallen, no skein has been ripped, and no molasses has been spilled,” i.e. nothing at all has happened

  • ker2 deaf
  • ker3 quiet, silent
  • keramet f miracle
  • kerb f sorrow, grief; bi ~a … çûn v.i. to

empathize with …

  • kerem generosity, benefit; ji ~a xwe

please, if you would be so kind

  • kerî f herd; piece
  • kermî f snout
  • kerpîç m sun-baked mud brick
  • kerwan m caravan
  • keser f sorrow, grief; ~vedan f sorrowing
  • kesk green
  • keşf kirin v.t. to discover
  • keştî f boat
  • ketin kev- v.i. to fall; ~ li ber … to object

to, oppose; bi ser ~ to come up, to surface

  • kev- → ketin
  • kevanî = kebanî
  • kevçî m spoon
  • kever spotlessly white
  • kevin ancient
  • kevir m stone, rock
  • kevnar ancient
  • kevnebajar f ancient seat
  • kevneperest conservative
  • kevnesovyet f the ex-Soviet Union
  • kew partridge
  • kewanî = kebanî
  • kewtîn v.i. to bark
  • keys f opportunity, advantage
  • kezeb f liver; womb; ~ şewitan to feel

sorry, be distressed

  • kezî f braid of hair
  • kezk f strand of hair
  • kez kirin v.t. to bite
  • kê → kî
  • kêf f pleasure, joy: li ~a wî nedihat she

wasn’t enjoying it; ~xweş happy; ~xweşî f happiness, pleasure, rejoicing; ~ û sefa pleasure

  • kêl m grave
  • kêlek f side, edge
  • kêm few, little bit; ~ kirin v.t. to lessen;

~ mabû ku (+ subj.) almost: kêm mabû ku dila te ji kêfa ji sînga te derkeve your heart almost leapt out of your breast from joy; ~anî f deficiency, inadequacy; ~asî f paucity; ~ û zêde more or less; bê~asî flawless( ly); bi ~anî f at least

  • kURDISH-ENGLISH VOCABULARY

221

  • kêr1 f knife
  • kêr2 f benefit, profit, effect; bi ~î …

hatin to be of benefit to …: bi kêrî çi tê? what’s the use of it?; bi~ useful

  • kêrûşk rabbit
  • kês = keys
  • kêşan v.t. to pull, draw; cixar ~ to

smoke cigarettes

  • kêz f bug, insect; ~ik f bug
  • kibrît match; ~firoş matchseller
  • kifş clear, apparent
  • kil1 f collyrium; ~ kirin to paint the eyes

with collyrium

  • kil2 kirin v.t. to wave; dest ~ ji … re to

wave the hand at

  • kim m corner
  • kin short; ~î f shortness; bi ~î shortly,

slightly

  • kinc pl clothes
  • kincik m rag
  • kir → kirin
  • kiras m shirt
  • kirêt ugly, shameful; ~î f ugliness, defilement,

shame

  • kirêwe m blizzard
  • kirin k- v.t. to do; ~ ku (+ pres. subj.) to

make (as if to do s.th.), almost to do s.th.: wî kir ku tiştekî bibêje, lê ne got he almost said something, but he didn’t; ji xwe ~ to take off (clothes), disrobe: min kincên xwe ji xwe kir I took off my clothes; te dikir û nedikir do what you might; min kir û nekir no matter what I did

  • kirîn kir- v.t. to buy
  • kirûmat in stony silence
  • kişandin kişîn- v.t. to pull, draw; dest ~

ji to withdraw from

  • kişkişandin v.t. to drag
  • kitêb f book; ~xane f library
  • kitkit f detail
  • kivş = kifş
  • kî (obl. kê) who?
  • kîjan which?
  • kîn f revenge, feud: kîna xwe bi hev re

hene they are having a feud; ~ girtin v.t. to take revenge

  • kînga ever; when
  • kîs m sack, bag; ji ~ê xwe out of one’s

own pocket

  • kîso f tortoise
  • klasifikasyon f classification
  • klaşnîkov f Klashnikov rifle
  • ko = ku2
  • koç kirin v.t. to decamp, move; ~î …
  • kirin to move to
  • kok1 f stitch
  • kok2 f root, stub
  • kolan f street
  • kolan kol- v.t. to dig, dig out, research;

~din kolîn- v.t. to dig

  • kole1 trick, deceit; ~ kirin v.t. to

deceive; ~dar tricky, deceitful

  • kole2 captive, slave
  • kolonyalîst colonialist
  • kom f pile, group; ~ bûn to gather, assemble;

~a san pack of dogs

  • komar f republic: Komara Mehabadê

the Republic of Mahabad

  • komel f society, organization: Komela
  • karkerên Kurd Kurdish Workers

Society; ~ayetî social

  • komik f small group
  • kon m tent
  • kongre f congress
  • kor, kûr blind; ~ ~ fikirîn to be lost in

thought

  • kor û kend m depression
  • koşik f pavilion
  • kovar f journal
  • kovî wild, ferocious
  • kox f coop: koxa mirîşkan chicken coop
  • koxik f hut, shack
  • ku1 where?; ji ~ where from?, li ~

where, where at?

  • ku2 that (subordinating conj.); unless
  • kuç f large rock
  • kuderê where?
  • kURMANJI KURDISH

222

  • kufuk m snot; kufkê poz snot; kufkê

guh earwax; ~girtî snotty

  • kuj m corner
  • kuj- → kuştin
  • kul f wound, pain, suffering; adj. infected,

inflamed, suffering

  • kulav m felt mat
  • kulek f smoke hole
  • kulfet f job, duty: xudê kulfet employed,

holding down a job; maid, female servant; wife

  • kulik m finger; ~ekî dan ser to put a

finger on, point to

  • kulî f flake of snow
  • kulîlk f wild flower
  • kullî cotton
  • kulm f fist; ~ik f fist
  • kulmoz m beehive
  • kultur f culture
  • kum m cap; keça ~sor Little Red

Riding Hood

  • kun f hole; kun kun kirin v.t. to poke

holes in

  • kundkî rûniştin v.i. to hunker down
  • kunkunî pitted, pockmarked
  • kur m boy, son
  • kur kirin v.t. to cut (the hair)
  • kurd m/f Kurd; ~andin v.t. to Kurdicize;

~istan f Kurdistan; ~ayetî f

  • kurdishness; ~hiz Kurdophile; ~iyetî

f Kurdishness; ~î Kurdish

  • kurdmancî Kurmanji Kurdish
  • kurm m worm; ~ik m little worm; ~î

wormy, mangy, maggoty

  • kursî f chair, seat: kursiya şerefê the

seat of honor

  • kurş f frozen snow; ~enegirtî not frozen

solid

  • kurt short, brief; ~ayî f shortness: bi
  • kurtayî briefly; ~eçîrok f short story;

~edem f moment

  • kuruf f mound of snow
  • kusan how
  • kuskusandin v.t. to squint
  • kuştin kuj- v.t. to kill
  • kut xistin li v.t. to take a puff on (a

cigarette)

  • kut peck, (dog’s) bark; ~ kirin v.t. to

clack, clatter, rattle

  • kutan v.t. to strike; çavên xwe jê ~ to

blink the eyes

  • kutatirîn least
  • kuxîn v.i. to cough
  • kuxuyan v.i. to cough
  • kûç call to a dog
  • kûçe f (obl kûçê) lane
  • kûçik m dog
  • kûd lame
  • kûl f ???
  • kûlîlk = kulîlk
  • kûr1 (dial. var.) = kor
  • kûr2 deep; ~ nêrîn to look closely; ~ahî

f depth; ~anî f depth

  • kûşke small, tiny
  • kûvî (dial. var.) = kovî
  • kwîr blind
  • kwêsî, kwîsî (dial. var.) = kîso

L[biguherîne]

  • labîrent f labyrinth
  • lablabik m marsh: kwêsiyê lablabik

marsh turtle

  • laîk secular
  • lal mute, speechless
  • lampe f lamp, light
  • land f belly
  • landik f cradle
  • laş m body, corpse
  • lat f boulder
  • latînî Latin
  • lava kirin v.t. to plead; ~yî f pleading
  • lavan = lava
  • law m/f youth, child; ~ik m infant
  • lawur m wild animal
  • layiq worthy
  • lazim necessary
  • lebitîn v.i. to move about
  • leheng m champion, hero
  • lehî f flood, torrent

KURDISH-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 223

  • lekim m/f tentacle ???
  • lenger f tray
  • lep m paw
  • leplepî twinkling ???
  • lerizîn = lerzîn
  • lerizîner trembling
  • lerizok trembling
  • lerz m trembling
  • lerzandin lerzîn- v.t. to shake
  • lerzîn v.i. to tremble, shake
  • leş m body; ~bizdîn ???
  • leşker m soldier
  • lev aimless ???; ~ ketin v.i. to chatter

(of the teeth)

  • lewaş thin flat bread
  • lewhe f sign
  • lewma for this reason, therefore
  • lewra, ji lewra because
  • leyistin leyiz-, lîz- v.t. to play, play (a

part); to play around (bi with): wî bi nivîsên min dileyist he used to play around with my writings

  • leyiztin (dial. var.) = leyistin
  • leylan f mirage
  • leypiçig f Leipzig
  • lez m haste; ~ kirin v.t. to make haste;

bi ~ in haste, hastily; bi ~ û bez in all haste, as fast as possible

  • lezandin lezîn- v.t. to hasten, to accelerate
  • lezet f pleasure
  • lê1 but; ~belê on the other hand
  • lê2 = li + wî/wê
  • lê bûn bi to be afflicted with
  • lê-dan lê-d- v.t. to strike, play (instrument);

cut off: bila mîr serê min lêbidit

  • let the prince cut my head off
  • lê-gerîn v.t. collect
  • lêh: di lêhê … de ccmp. for, in support

of

  • lêkolîn f research; ~er m researcher
  • lêv f lip, seashore
  • lêvişkestî with a broken lid
  • lê-xistin v.t. to beat, to play (musical

instrument), to ring (telephone)

  • li prep. in, at, to; also forms the first element

of a number of compound prepositions; see the second element

  • lib m copy (of a book), flake (of snow),

drop (tear); unit, single item

  • liberxwe free, unhindered
  • libnan f Lebanon
  • lihêf f quilt
  • lihîstin (dial. var.) = lîstin
  • likumîn v.i. to trip
  • ling m foot, leg; li ser ~an standing, on

foot

  • lipaşmayî backward; ~n f backwardness
  • liq f branch
  • liqandin v.t. to hang; xwe ~ to hang

(int.)

  • liser vebûn v.t. to diagnose
  • liv f motion, movement; ~ lê dan, ~ lê

xistin v.t. to put in motion

  • livandin livîn- v.t. to move, put in motion:

destikên keştiyê zû dilivandin he was moving the oars of the boat quickly

  • liviyan = livîn1
  • livîn1 v.i. to move, be in motion, stir
  • livîn2 m bed, bedding
  • livok unstable
  • lixwekirin f manner of dress
  • lîlandin v.t. to ululate
  • lîsê f high school; ~ xwendin to attend

high school

  • lîstik f game, play, sport
  • lîstin lîz- v.i. to play
  • lîz- → lîstin
  • lojman f lodging
  • loma for that reason, therefore
  • luht naked, bare
  • luks deluxe
  • lûle f pipe, barrel (of a rifle)
  • lûrîn v.i. to bay
  • lûsîn v.i. to perch

M[biguherîne]

  • ma interrogative particle: with affirma-

tive questions a negative answer is expected: ma rast e? that’s not right, is it?; with negative questions an affirmative answer is expected: ma ne rast e? isn’t that right?; with other interrogatives ma gives the sense of “ever”: ma tu yê çi bikî bi kêrê? What ever are you going to do with a knife?

  • maç kirin v.t. to kiss
  • maden f Maden, also known as Paxirmaden,

city northwest of Diyarbekir

  • maf m share, portion; right; ~nas appreciative
  • makîne f machine, car
  • mal1 f house, home: mala min mala te

my house is your house; ~bat f family; ~mezin belonging to a great family; ~xwê paterfamilias

  • mal2 m goods, possessions, wealth: ~ê

ticaretê commercial goods

  • mal- → maliştin, miştin
  • malava (vocative particle) hey!, see

here!

  • maliştin mal- v.t. to rub, rub out
  • maliye f tax office
  • ma‘lûmat (pl) information
  • mam m paternal uncle
  • mamostatî/etî f pedagogy; ~atî/etî

kirin v.t. to teach: wî mamostetiya zimanê erebî dikir he used to teach the Arabic language

  • mamostayî kirin v.t. to teach: wî
  • mamostayiya rewşenbîrî ya gelek

rewşenbîrên kurd kir he taught many Kurdish intellectuals how to be intellectuals

  • mamoste m teacher;
  • man mîn- v.i. to remain, stay, dwell;

ne~ to cease to exist, to be no more: nema xweya kir he never appeared again; hindik ~ (+ subj.) to be about to, to be on the verge of: hindik dima fener bitemire the lamp was on the verge of going out

  • mandî exhausted; ~bûn f exhaustion
  • ma‘ne (const ma‘na) f meaning; ~wî
  • moral, spiritual
  • mange f cow
  • manî constraint, obstacle
  • mantiq m logic
  • ma‘qûl reasonable; ~ dîtin to consider

reasonable: wî pêşniyaza min maqûl dît he considered my proposal reasonable

  • mar m (obl mêr) snake
  • mar kirin v.t. to marry (li to)
  • marş f march, anthem
  • mase f (obl masê) table
  • mast m yogurt
  • maşellah goodness! (said to ward off

the evil eye when something is admired or praised)

  • mat silent
  • matmayîn f astonishment
  • mayî(n) other
  • mazlûm tyrannized; ~iyet f tyrannization
  • mazot f kerosene
  • me → em
  • me- alternative negative subjunctive

and imperative prefix = nemebest f intent

  • mebin (archaic negative 3rd pl subjunctive

of bûn) they may not be: gelek

  • mebin jî even though they may not be
  • many
  • mecal f opportunity: ta niha mecal tune

bû until now there has been no opportunity; ~ birrîn v.t. to take an opportunity away

  • mecbûr obliged; ~ kirin v.t. to oblige,

force

  • meclis parliament
  • medeniyet f civilization
  • medinî civil
  • medrese f religious school
  • mefhûm f concept
  • meh f month

KURDISH-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 225

  • mehabad f Mahabad
  • mehkeme f court
  • mehkûm condemned; ~ kirin v.t. to

condemn

  • mehlûl dissolved; ~ bûn to be dissolved
  • mehr f marriage contract; ~ birîn to

conclude a marriage contract

  • mehrûm ji deprived of
  • mehû kirin v.t. to wipe out
  • mejî m marrow
  • mejûl occupied; ~ bûn li ser v.i. to be

occupied, busy with

  • mekan stance, position
  • mekteb f school
  • mela m (obl. melê) mulla
  • mele (dial. var.) = mela
  • melevan m swimmer; ~î f swimming
  • melkemot the angel of death
  • me’mûr government official
  • mencel a copper pot
  • mendik an herb
  • meqale f article
  • merasîm f ceremony
  • merbend f bond, fetter
  • mereqdarî f interest, inquisitiveness,

curiosity

  • mereq kirin v.t. to wonder
  • merg f death
  • merhele f stage: di merhela ewel de in

the first stage

  • meriv m person, one (impersonal): gava
  • meriv li cihekî dimîne when one stays

in a place

  • merîd m disciple, devotee
  • merkez f center; ~î central: hukûmeta
  • merkezî central government
  • mesaj f message
  • mesel f example; ~en for example
  • mesele f matter
  • mestir larger, bigger
  • mes’ûliyet f responsibility
  • meş f walking: meşa xwe domand he

continued walking; ~andin v.t. to put into practice; ~iyan/-în v.i. to walk

  • metleb ???
  • mewlûd f a poem celebrating the birth

of the Prophet Muhammad, traditionally recited on festive occasions

  • mexsed f intent, intention
  • meydan f field; anîn ~ê v.t. to bring to

the fore

  • meyeldar, meyildar = meyldar
  • meyîn v.i. to remain
  • meyl f inclination; ~dar predisposed (ji

…re to); ~darî f bias, predisposition

  • mezel1 m grave, tomb
  • mezel2 f room
  • mezheb m sect
  • mezin big, large, great; ~ bûn v.i. to

grow up; ~ kirin v.t. to raise, bring up; ~ahî f greatness; bi ~bûna … as vast as

  • mê f female
  • mêj long ago; ji ~ ve from long ago
  • mêjî f brain, mind
  • mêjîn v.i. to suck, suckle
  • mêjvemayî remnant, relic
  • mêr1 m man, husband; ~anî f manliness;

~ik m fellow, guy; ~xas m gentleman

  • mêr2 → mar
  • mêrg f meadow
  • mêrxas brave
  • mêş f bee; ~a hingivî honeybee
  • mêtro f metro, subway
  • mêvan m/f guest; ~darî f visit; ~perwerî

f hospitality; ~xane f reception room

  • mêze kirin li v.t. to look at, see
  • miç shut, closed; ~ kirin v.t. to shut,

cover

  • mideh m period of time
  • midûr m director, principal
  • mihî ???
  • mihrican f celebration, festival
  • mij m mist
  • mijîn (dial. var.) = mêjîn
  • mijûl bi … ve occupied, involved with;

~î f occupation, activity

  • mikan = mekan
  • mil m neck, shoulder; support, aid; side,

direction; bi ~ê yekî girtin v.t. to come to s.o.’s aid, to lessen s.o.’s burden; ji ~ê din on the other hand

  • milet m nation; ~perwer nationalistic
  • milî national
  • min → ez
  • mindal m child
  • minet f obligation; bê ~ generous
  • minnet = minet
  • miqam m musical mode
  • miraz ??? wish
  • mircan coral, coral bead
  • mirin mir-/mr- (dimire, dimre) v.i. to

die

  • miriyan = mirin
  • mirî dead
  • mirîd m devotee
  • mirîşk f chicken
  • mirov m man; f woman; m/f person;

~atî f humanity, humaneness, chivalry

  • mirwarîd m/f ??? pearl
  • misilman Moslem
  • misir f Egypt; misrî Egyptian
  • mişt ji full of, filled to the brim with
  • miştin mal- v.t. to sweep
  • mit man v.i. not to make a sound
  • mit û mat utterly silent
  • mixabin unfortunately
  • mizgîn m good news; ~î f present given

to a person bearing good news

  • mî f sheep
  • mîh = mî
  • mîn- → man
  • mîna (prep.) like; ~ ku (conj.) as, while
  • mînak equal, similar; m example: weke
  • mînak for example; ~î f similarity
  • mîr m prince; f princess; ~ek princeling
  • mohr f seal, stamp; ~ xistin v.t. to seal,

put a stamp on

  • mor = mohr
  • more cracked (as a mud wall)
  • moz(e) flying insect
  • mr- → mirin.
  • mudet m period
  • mudîr m school principal
  • muesese f institution
  • muhlet f grace period, respite
  • munaqeşe f debate; ~ kirin v.t. to debate
  • munasebet f occasion; bi ~a on the occasion

of

  • muxtar m village chief, elder
  • muzîk f music
  • mû m hair, strand of hair; iota: ne mûwek

not an iota

  • mûrî f ant

N[biguherîne]

  • na- (negative prefix for present indicative

verbs) not

  • nalîn v.i. to wail, cry out
  • name f letter
  • namûs f honor; womenfolk
  • nan m bread; ~pêjî f bakery
  • nar m pomegranate
  • narîn delicate
  • nas acquainted, known, familiar; ~ kirin

v.t. to know, be acquainted with, recognize; ~andin v.t. to introduce, make known; dan naskirin v.t. to introduce

  • nasiyar familiar
  • nasnav m identity
  • nav1 f middle; di ~a … de in the midst

of; li ~ hev de girtin to surround; ~în middle (adj.), central: Rojhilata Navîn the Middle East

  • nav2 m name; ~ kirin v.t. to name;

~andin v.t. to name; ~dar famous, renowned; ~no notorious; ~notî f notoriety

  • navbera prep. between, among
  • naverok f contents
  • navik f waist
  • navneteweyî international
  • navnîşan f address

KURDISH-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 227

  • navteng f girth
  • naxêr no
  • naxir f herd
  • naxwe this being so
  • naylon f plastic: tûrikên ~ plastic bags
  • naynik = neynik
  • nazik fine, delicate
  • ne not; ~ … ~ neither … nor; ~ … lê not

… but; ne- (negative prefix for subjunctive, imperative, and past-tense verbs) not

  • nebeled uninformed, unknowing
  • neçar helpless; ~ man to have no alternative;

~î f helplessness; ji ~î with no alternative

  • nedarî f poverty
  • nedî ve, ji suddenly
  • nefel f clover
  • nefes dan v.t. to huff and puff; to be out

of breath

  • nefret f hatred; ~ kirin ji v.t. to hate,

abhor

  • nefs f self; ~a xwe karîn to control oneself;

~piçûk humble; ~piçûkî, ~piçûkahî f humility

  • neft f oil
  • neh nine
  • neheqî f injustice
  • nehy prohibition
  • nejihevûdurebûyîn f indivisibility and

inseparability

  • nema not…again
  • nemaze especially
  • nemir undying, immortal: dibe xwediyê
  • navekî nemir he possesses an immortal
  • name
  • nemirovane unmanly, cowardly
  • nenas unacquainted, unfamiliar, unknown;

~ê unacquainted with

  • nepixandin nepixîn- v.t. to blow up, inflate
  • nepixîn v.i. to swell
  • neqandin v.t. to select, choose
  • nerazî discontent; ~bûn f discontentment
  • nerindî evil
  • nerm soft, gentle, fine; ~ahî f softness,

gentleness; ~ik softly, gently

  • nesir f prose
  • neşên unhappy
  • netewe f nation; ~yên Yekbûyî the

United Nations; ~yî national; ~yîtî f

  • nationalism
  • nevî m/f grandchild, offspring
  • nevroz f Persian New Year’s day
  • newal f valley
  • nexş miracle; ~în miraculous
  • nexşe f map
  • nexwe otherwise
  • nexweş sick, ill; unpleasant; ~î f sickness,

disease; ~xane f hospital

  • nexuyayî invisible
  • neyar m enemy, opponent, foe
  • neyînî f destitution
  • neynik f mirror
  • neynok f fingernail, toenail
  • neynûk = neynok
  • nezanî f ignorance
  • nêçirvan m hunter
  • nêçîr f game, prey; çûn ~ê v.i. to go

after game

  • nêçîrvan m hunter
  • nêrevan m scout
  • nêrîn v.i. to look; f view, speculation
  • nêşan f target, mark; ~ kirin v.t. to take

aim at, to focus on

  • nêv (dial. var.) = nîv
  • nêvî (dial. var.) = nîvî
  • nêzîk near; ~ahî f proximity; ~î near to,
  • nearly
  • nêzîkatî kirin bi v.t. to approach
  • nifirîn f malediction, curse
  • nifş m generation
  • nifûs f identity card
  • nig m foot; ~ên xwe zêdeyî xwe avêtin

to overstep one’s bounds

  • nigardar beautiful
  • niha now; berî ~ before now, ago
  • nihe = niha
  • nihêran expectant, apprehensive
  • nihêrîn li v.i. to look at, to notice; to

look upon, regard (wek as)

  • nihêrtin (dial. var.) = nihêrîn
  • niho (dial. var.) = niha
  • nijad m race; ~perest racist
  • nijde f brigandage
  • nik f side, direction; toward, to; prep.
  • next to, with, to, for
  • nikil m beak
  • nikilandin nikilên- v.t. to peck
  • nimêj f prayer; ~ kirin v.t. to pray
  • nimûne f example: ji bo nimûne as an

example, for example; ~nde f example

  • niqutandin v.t. to drip
  • niqutîn v.i. to drip
  • nisbet bi relative to
  • nisxe = nusxe
  • nişan = nîşan
  • nişk: ji ~ê (~a) ve suddenly
  • niştin nê-/niş- v.i. to sit
  • nitilandin v.t. to draw, to mark
  • nivistin -niv- v.i. to sleep
  • niviz ???
  • nivîn1 m (usually pl) bed; ~ê nexweşiyê

sick bed; destek ~ a set of sheets and bedding material

  • nivîn2 -niv- v.i. to lie down, sleep
  • nivîsandin v.t. to write
  • nivîsar f writing, text
  • nivîsevan m writer
  • nivîsîn v.t. to write
  • nivîskar m/f writer; ~î kirin to write,

engage in writing

  • nivîskî written
  • nivş = nifş
  • nivz half
  • niwal f small valley
  • niyet f intention
  • nixabtin = nuxumandin
  • nixamtin = nuxumandin
  • nixumandin = nuxumandin
  • nizar m mountain side (where the sun
  • never shines)
  • nizim low
  • nîjad = nijad
  • nîn none, nothing
  • nîsan f April
  • nîşan f sign, mark, military decoration;

~ dan v.t. to show; ~ kirin v.t. to indicate

  • nîv half; ~ saetê half an hour; ~cî half

done; ~ê şevê midnight; ~roj f noon; ~sedsal f midpoint of a century

  • nîvek f half
  • nîveruh half-dead
  • nîvişkestî cracked
  • nîvî f middle, midpoint, half
  • nîzing (dial. var.) = nêzîk
  • nod ninety
  • nojdarû f panacea
  • nok f chickpea; ~a tahtê pebble
  • nola (prep.) like: nola hev like each

other

  • noqim bûn v.i. ???
  • not = nod
  • nozdeh nineteen
  • nu new; ji ~ ve all over again
  • nuçêbûyî new-born
  • nudem modern
  • nuh = nu
  • nuha (dial. var.) = niha
  • nuhatî new, newly come about: nivşê
  • nu the new generation
  • nuhîtî f newness, novelty
  • nujen newly invented, new-fangled,

modern

  • nuka (dial. var.) = nuha
  • nusxe f copy
  • nuvejîn f renaissance
  • nuxumandin v.t. to cover, veil
  • nuxumîn v.i. to be covered, veiled
  • nuyîtî f novelty
  • nuzewicî newly-wed
  • nû = nu
  • nûh = nu
  • nûjen = nujen
  • nûner representative
  • nY = Neteweyên Yekbûyî the United
  • nations

O[biguherîne]

  • oda, ode f (obl odê) room
  • okyanûs f ocean
  • ol f religion; ~dar religious; ~î religious;

~perwer religious

  • ordî f army: Ordiya Sor the Red Army
  • ordu = ordî
  • ‘orre ‘or f roar
  • orte f middle
  • Osmanî Ottoman
  • otorîte f authority

P[biguherîne]

  • pag stable
  • pak pure, clean; ~hilanîn ji v.t. to get

rid of

  • pakêt package
  • pal1 f mountainside
  • pal2 dan v.t. to push
  • palas ???
  • pale m worker
  • pan wide, broad
  • panatî f expanse, breadth
  • pansiman kirin v.t. to bandage
  • papor f stove
  • paqij pure, clean; ~ kirin v.t. to clean;

~î f cleanliness

  • paqiş (dial. var.) = paqij
  • par1 f part, share
  • par2 last year
  • par3 f back; ji ~ re from behind
  • parçe, perçe m piece: du sê perçên

kaxizên two or three pieces of paper; ~ bûn v.i. to be fragmented; ~ kirin v.t. to fragment

  • parastin parêz- v.t. to protect, guard
  • parîs f Paris
  • parsî Persian language
  • partî f political party: partiyên kurd yên

siyasî Kurdish political parties

  • parve kirin v.t. to distribute
  • paseport f passport
  • paş m the back; li ~ serê prep. behind;

~ê xwe avetin bi v.t. to throw oneself into s.th.; ~eroj f past, the past; ~îngê later; ~verû backward; ~verûtî f backwardness

  • paşil f bosom
  • paşî f end; heta paşiyê until the end
  • patik f back of the head
  • paye f high rank, place of honor; ~tî f

honor

  • payîz f autumn
  • pejirandin v.t. to accept
  • pekiyan = pekîn
  • pekîn pek- v.i. to splash, splatter, rise

up suddenly

  • pekok: stêrka pekok shooting star
  • pel m leaf, page
  • pelikan stairs, stairway
  • pelk leaf
  • pembo m cotton
  • pena f refuge, asylum; ~ber m/f refugee;

~berî f refugee status

  • pencere f window
  • peng ???
  • pengizandin pengizîn- v.t. to make

jump, spurt

  • pengizîn v.i. to spray, spurt
  • penîr m (obl. penêr) cheese
  • per1 m side
  • per2 m feather
  • per3 f piece
  • peran heavy: cezayê peran heavy penalty
  • perçe = parçe
  • perçîn rivet; bi hev ~ kirin to rivet

together, to patch together

  • perde f (const. perda) curtain
  • perdî f ceiling beam
  • pere m money
  • pergal m compass; bi ~ derketin to be

encompassed

  • pergî (+ construct) hatin v.i. to come

across, find; çûn ~ to go to find

  • perpitîn v.i. to flutter: dilê min diperpite

I get sick at my stomach

  • perwaz f flight
  • perwerdî f education
  • pesin m praise; ~andin v.t. to praise, to

approve of; wesf û pesnê … dan to

  • praise and extol
  • pesnê m trace
  • petrol f petrolium
  • pevgirêdan f connection
  • pexşan f prose; ~nivîskar m prosewriter
  • pey: li ~ (prep.) behind, after; di ~ … de

(prep.) after

  • peya m man
  • peya bûn v.i. to get out, off, down (from

vehicle)

  • peyda bûn v.i. to be found: min zanîbû

wê saetê ava germ peyda nabe I knew there was no warm water to be found at that time; ~ kirin v.t. to find

  • peyitandin v.t. to prove
  • peyivîn v.i. to talk, speak: ez zêde pê re

nepeyivîm I didn’t speak to him long

  • peyî hev one after the other
  • peyman f pact, agreement; ~ê girêdan

ligel to conclude a pact with

  • peyv f conversation, talk, words: me
  • peyv dagerand ser huner û edebiyatê

we turned the conversation to art and literature; ~ik f expression

  • peywendî f relation: peywendiyên navneteweyî

international relations

  • pez f sheep
  • pezkîvî (dial. var.) = pezkûvî
  • pezkûvî mountain sheep
  • pê1 = bi + wî/wê
  • pê2 m foot
  • pêçandin pêçîn- v.t. to wrap, roll
  • pêçîn pêç- v.t. to roll, wrap;
  • pêjin f feeling
  • pêjîn pêj- v.i. to be cooked; v.t. to light

(cigarette)

  • pêk together; ~-anîn v.t. to get together,

collect, arrange; ~-hatin v.i. to come about, come to be; ~-hatin ji v.i. to consist of

  • pê-ketin v.i. to catch (fire)
  • pêkol kirin v.t. to stick together (snow)
  • pêkva together
  • pê-xistin v.t. to light (fire), to switch on
  • pêl f wave; ~ bûn v.i. to spread out
  • pêlpêlî wavy, undulating
  • pênc five; ~ih, ~î fifty
  • pêra along with him (see pê)
  • pêrgî → pergî
  • pêsîr f collar; windpipe; forefront; area

just below the summit of a mountain

  • pêş forward: mirov ê bi pêş de biçe one

will go forward; ~-ketin to advance; bi ~ derketin to come out to the fore; ~eroj f the future; ~de xistin to promote; ~ketî advanced

  • pêşayîk f forefront
  • pêşber m guide, leader; ketin ~ê to be

faced with; ~î in the lead, leadership, (prep.) in front of; ~î … derketin to lead, go out ahead of

  • pêşdexistin f promotion, advancement
  • pêşeng m leader, vanguard
  • pêşepêşa, li prep. out in front of
  • pêşeroj f future
  • pêşevan m leader
  • pêşgotin f foreword
  • pêşiya prep. before, in front of
  • pêşî adj. first: cara pêşî the first time, di

du-sê salên pêşî de during the first two or three years; f advance: ~ya … girtin v.t. to prevent

  • pêşîk avant-garde, forerunner
  • pêşîn first
  • pêşkeş f present, gift, tribute; ~ kirin v.t.

to offer (as a gift), to present

  • pêşmerge m guerrilla
  • pêşniyaz f proposal, suggestion
  • pêşveketin f advancement, progress
  • pêt f flame
  • pêtgiran lazy, indolent

KURDISH-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 231

  • pêwendî bi f connection to
  • pêwîst necessary; ~î f necessity, requirement
  • pêxember m prophet
  • pê-xistin -xê- v.t. to light, turn on (light)
  • pêxwas barefooted
  • piç small, little; ~ek a little bit, for a

moment; a little thing

  • pife pif f huff and puff
  • pif kirin v.t. to blow, puff
  • pifinî kirin v.t. to hiss
  • pij scattered
  • pijandin v.t. to cook
  • pijîn v.i. to be cooked
  • pijiqandin v.t. to make (blood) gush
  • pijiqîn v.i. to explode, to blow up
  • piling m tiger
  • pilot m/f spark ???
  • pilpilî ???
  • piqpiqok f bubble
  • pir1 very, many, much; ~anî f most,

majority: piraniya wan most of them;

  • pirraniya caran most of the time
  • pir2 f bridge
  • pirç f body hair
  • piroze kirin v.t. to tear to shreds
  • pirs f question; ~ek ji… kirin v.t. to ask

a question of s.o.; ~gir skeptic; ~girêk f question: pirsgirêka kurdî the Kurdish question

  • pirsan v.t. to ask (a question)
  • pirtepirt f sputtering ???
  • pirtik f sheet (glass, paper)
  • pirtûk f paper, sheet of paper
  • pirtve kirin v.t. to tear to pieces
  • pisîk f cat
  • pismam m cousin
  • pispor, pispûr m expert; ~î f expertise
  • pişaftin v.t. to assimilate
  • pişirîn to ruminate (?)
  • pişt f back, hill; ~a prep. behind, on the

other side of; ~a xwe dan v.t. to turn one’s back; ~î prep. after; ~î ku conj. after; ~germ supported, protected; ~gir m supporter; ~girî f support; ~re then, later, afterward; ~xwar hunched-over

  • piyale f glass, goblet
  • piyes f play
  • pizot m torch: çavên wê wek du pizotên

êgir bûn his eyes were like two fiery torches

  • pîjame m pyjamas
  • pîn f kick; ~-avêtin v.t. to kick
  • pîne ???
  • pîpoq f glass
  • pîr old; m/f old man, old woman; ~ik f

grandmother

  • pîratî f old age
  • pîrhepok m monster ???
  • pîroz sacred, holy; ~ kirin v.t. to celebrate;

to congratulate: ew wê roja han mîna karnevalekê pîroz dikin they celebrate that day like a carneval; ~bahî f congratulations; ~wer holy

  • pîs bad, dirty; ~ik nasty, awful; ~itî f

obscenity

  • pîsîr (dial. var.) = pêsîr
  • pîvan f measurement, criterion; ~din
  • pîvên- v.t. to measure
  • PKK = Partiya Karkerên Kurdistanê

Kurdish Workers’ Party

  • plan f plan; ~çêker m planner; ~ çêkirin

to make a plan

  • pola m steel
  • polîtîka f politics; policy
  • ponijîn v.i. to be engrossed in thought
  • por m hair (on the head); ~reş blackhaired;

~zer blonde

  • poşman regretful; ~ bûn li to regret

s.th./doing s.th.

  • poxsîde sad
  • poz m nose, snout
  • prensîp m principle
  • proje f project
  • protesto kirin v.t. to protest, go on

strike, boycott

  • pTT = Post Telefon Telexraf Post, Tel-

KURMANJI KURDISH 232 ephone, and Telegraph

  • pûç useless, unuseable
  • pûk f snowstorm, blizzard
  • pûrt f hair, fur, pelt; ~ û per feathery

coat

  • pûtperest idolator; ~î f idolatry
  • PZ = piştî zayînê anno domini (AD)

Q[biguherîne]

  • qaçaxçî m smuggler
  • qad f field, place; ~a şer field of battle
  • qaf f head
  • qahf m cave, cavern
  • qail bûn to accept (bi)
  • qal f statement; ~ kirin v.t. to state; ~ û

ceng f fight

  • qalçikdayî frostbitten ???
  • qalik m shell, husk
  • qalind thick, fat
  • qam f stature, height; measurement for

the height of the sun in the sky

  • qamçî m whip
  • qamiş reed
  • qanser f cancer
  • qanûn f law
  • qarîn v.i. to cry bitterly
  • qasid m messenger, envoy
  • qasî ku as much as
  • qatil m murderer
  • qayiş, qayîş f strap, thong, belt; rivalry,

competition; bi … re ketin ~ê to compete against: te digot qey ew bi min re ketibû qayîşê you’d think he was in competition with me

  • qaymeqam m provincial governor
  • qaz m goose
  • qazaxî f butane
  • qe no, none, at all: ez qe naxwênim I

don’t read at all

  • qebûl kirin v.t. to accept; wek … hatin
  • qebûlkirin to be accepted as
  • qedandin v.t. to finish, to complete
  • qedeh f cup, goblet
  • qeder1 m amount; ~ê … for the length

of …

  • qeder2 f fate, destiny
  • qedexe f prohibition; (adj) prohibited; ~

kirin to prohibit, to ban

  • qedir m worth; qedrê … zanîn to appreciate;
  • qedrê xwe girtin to esteem

oneself; ~gir appreciative, estimable

  • qediyan v.i. to end, be finished
  • qefilandin v.t. to tire
  • qefilîn v.i. to get tired
  • qefqasya f the Caucasus
  • qefsing f breastbone
  • qehbik f harlot
  • qehbîtî = qehpetî
  • qeherîn (dial. var.) = qehirîn
  • qehir f wrath, rage;
  • qehirîn v.i. to get angry (ji at)
  • qehpe f prostitute; ~tî f prostitution
  • qehwe f coffee
  • qelaş split open, wounded
  • qelaştin -qelêş- v.t. to split, split open;
  • qelaştina cerahî surgical incision
  • qelaw fat
  • qelem f pen
  • qelemrew m realm
  • qelew (dial. var.) = qelaw
  • qelêş- → qelaştin
  • qelişandin qelişîn- v.t. to split, cleave
  • qelişîn v.i. to be split
  • qelizandin v.t. to make disappear; xwe

~ to slip away

  • qelîşt f crack
  • qels weak: kultura devkî ya Kurdî xurt e

lê kultura nivîskî qels e Kurdish oral culture is strong, but the written culture is weak; ~î f weakness

  • qelş = qelîşt
  • qelşqelşî cracked
  • qenc good, pretty, nice; ~î beauty, charitable

act, good deed

  • qerar decision
  • qerax f edge, shore
  • qerçimî wrinkled
  • qerebalix f crowd, confusion; ~ kirin

v.t. to act up, to flail around KURDISH-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 233

  • qereqol m police station
  • qerisîn v.i. to freeze solid
  • qermiç f wrinkle; ~î wrinkled
  • qerpeçe kirin v.t. to hold tightly in

one’s embrace

  • qesir f palace
  • qest f intention, purpose; ~a … kirin

v.t. to head toward

  • qeşa f ice
  • qet (+ neg.) never, not at all
  • qetan v.i. to be finished; be cut
  • qetandin qetîn- v.t. to finish; break, cut:

kurdên li derveyî welêt ev zincîra kirêt qetandine Kurds outside the country have broken this shameful chain; ji hev ~ to part from one another

  • qeter m scales, balance; ~ kirin v.t. to

spy (something in the distance)

  • qetiyan = qetan
  • qewimîn v.i. to happen
  • qewirandin v.t. to drive away
  • qewîn strong
  • qewl f promise; ji ~ên xwe vekişiyan to

reneg on one’s promises, go back on one’s word

  • qey hey; why?; te digot qey you’d

think, it was as though

  • qeyd f bond, fetter
  • qeyde f rule
  • qeytankêş kirin v.t. ???
  • qeza1 f district
  • qeza2 f accident; fate; ~ û bela misfortune,

calamity

  • qezenc f profit, earnings, advantage: bi
  • qezenca … to the advantage of …; ~

kirin v.t. to earn, gain, win

  • qêrîn v.i. to scream
  • qijak raven
  • qijik f crow
  • qilêr(în) filthy
  • qir kirin v.t. to eliminate, exterminate
  • qiral m king
  • qirax (dial. var.) = qerax
  • qirçeqirç creak, splintering sound
  • qirdik m clown
  • qirik1 f crow
  • qirik2 f throat; ~talî f bitter aftertaste
  • qirş f stem, branch; ~ik f twig
  • qise f conversation, talk
  • qismet m fate
  • qiyamet f resurrection; roja ~ê doomsday
  • qizwan terebinth, a small tree
  • qîjeqîj f loud cry, scream
  • qîjiyan v.i. to scream
  • qîl m fang, canine tooth; ber ~an dan to

sink the fangs into

  • qîm f contentment, satisfaction; ~a xwe

anîn bi to consent to

  • qîmet f worth, value
  • qîr f cry, shout; ~ kirin v.t. to shout;

~ewîr f cry, shout; ~în v.i. to cry out, screech

  • qîrçîn v.i. to scream, screech
  • qîz f daughter
  • qoç m horn (of an animal)
  • qonax f inn; a one-day’s distance on a

journey

  • qontrol f check
  • qufulîn v.i. to feel very cold
  • qul f hole, opening: qula rêviyan fox

hole; ~ kirin to pierce

  • qulibîn v.i. to fall down, collapse,

scramble down

  • quling crane
  • quloç m league (measure of distance)
  • quloz bûn v.i. to rise up
  • qulqulî full of holes
  • qulubîn = qulibîn
  • qumandan m commandant
  • qunc f corner; xistine ~ekî asê to corner
  • quncik f little bit
  • quntar f foot of a mountain
  • quran f the Koran
  • qurane f hinge
  • qurban f sacrifice, victim; qurbana

armanca xwe a martyr to one’s cause KURMANJI KURDISH 234

  • qurm m tree stump: mîna qurmê dara

mirî like a dead tree stump

  • qut cut, cut off; ~ bûn v.i. to get cut off
  • qutî f box
  • quwet power; bi ~ powerful
  • qûç f cliff, height, summit
  • qûn f back; ~a çiyê mountain skirt; li

ser ~ê xistin to topple

  • qûntar = quntar
  • qutîk f small box

R[biguherîne]

  • ra = re
  • ra-bûn v.i. to rise, arise, get up; to

abandon, give up (li s.th.)

  • ra-girtin v.t. to pick up; xwe ~ to recover
  • rahetî f ease, comfort
  • ra-hiştin v.t. to put down
  • ra-ketin v.i. to sleep
  • ra-kirin v.t. to take away, pick up; to

wake up (trs.); to cancel, abolish; ji navê ~ to eliminate

  • raman f stance
  • ra-man -mîn- v.i. to stand, stay, remain

standing; to be perplexed

  • ra-medandin v.t. to lay down
  • ra-mûsan -mûs- v.t. to kiss
  • ran m thigh
  • ra-pelikîn v.i. to crawl, creep
  • ra-pîvan v.t. to pick up; gav ~ to tread
  • rapor f report
  • raser superior
  • rast right, correct; ~ hatin li to come

across; ~ kirin v.t. to correct; bi ~î

  • really; ~e prep. straight toward;

~erast really and truly; ~erê correct; ~nivîsîn f orthography

  • rav f hunting
  • ra-westan v.i. to stand up, stop, stand

still; li ser … ~ to dwell on, stand up against

  • ra-westandin v.t. to make stop
  • ra-westiyan = ra-westan
  • rawir wild animal
  • ra-xistin v.t. to spread
  • ray f opinion
  • ra-zan -zê- v.i. to lie down, sleep
  • razdar mysterious
  • razî contented (li with)
  • re postposition forms the second part of

a number of circumpositions, generally indicating accompaniment; see the prepositional element

  • ref m row; flock (of birds)
  • reh f way, road; artery, vein; root; ~ û

penc roots

  • rehet easy, comfortable, quiet; ~î f

comfort, ease

  • rehm f mercy; ~ kirin li to have mercy

on; ~etî the late

  • rehmet f God’s mercy; çûn ~ê to pass

away

  • reîs m head, chief; ~î cumhûrê president

of the republic

  • rencberî f hardship, trouble
  • reng m color; bi ~ colored, multicolored;

bi çi ~î how?; ~e~ of all colors; ~dêr f description, quality, adjective; ~în varied, colorful

  • renî f avalanche
  • req1 m turtle
  • req2 stiff; ~ û rût stiff as a board
  • reqem f number
  • reqisîn v.i. to dance
  • resim m picture
  • resmî official
  • reş black; ~ girêdan v.t. to go into

mourning; ~ kirin v.t. to blacken

  • reş û reşatî f anything black or blackish

in color

  • reşatî f blackness, darkness
  • rev f flight, retreat
  • revan rev- v.i. to run away
  • revandin v.t. to let escape, to take away
  • revde m herd, pack; ~ girtin v.t. to form

a pack

  • revîn = revan
  • rewneq brightness, brilliance
  • rewrewik f mirage
  • rewş f style, manner
  • rewşenbîr intellectual
  • rex m side, edge, shore; (prep.) next to,

beside

  • rexne f criticism; ~ girtin li v.t. to criticise;

~gir m critic

  • rext m cartridge belt
  • reyan v.i. to bark
  • rez m vineyard, orchard
  • rê f (const. riya) road, way: bi wê riyê

in that way; bi riya via; ~ girtin v.t. to block the road, stop, prevent: kê rê li ber wan girtiye? who’s stopped them?; (bi) ~ ketin to set off, start out; ~ kirin to dispatch, send; bi ~ kirin to see off

  • rêbendan f February
  • rêber m leader; ~î f leadership; ~î kirin

to lead

  • rêbwar m wayfarer
  • rêçe f trace, track; ~ hildan v.t. to pick

up a trail

  • rêj kirin v.t. to wash
  • rêk-xistin v.t. to arrange, put in order
  • rêkxistin f coalition
  • rêl f forest, wood
  • rêncberî kirin v.t. to struggle, suffer

hardship

  • rêveçûn f gait, walk
  • rêvebir = birêvebir
  • rêvî m fox
  • rêvîng m traveler
  • rêwitî f journey
  • rêwî m/f traveler; ~tî f journey, trip
  • rêz f line; ~ bûn v.i. to line up; ~kirin

v.t. to line up, arrange

  • rêz-girtin ji v.t. to respect, have respect

for

  • rêzik f law, rule
  • rêziman f system, arrangement, grammar
  • ricaf f shaking, trembling
  • ricifîn v.i. to tremble
  • rih f beard
  • rihet (dial. var.) = rehet
  • rihm (dial. var.) = rehm
  • rijandin rijîn- v.t. to pour out
  • rijiyan v.i. to flow, to spill
  • rijî f scorched part at the bottom of a pot
  • rik stubbornness, relentlessness, nervousness
  • rikrikîn v.i. to chatter (of the teeth)
  • rind good, beautiful; well: ew bi zimanê

îngilîzî rind dizanibû he knew English well

  • risk = rizq
  • rivî (dial. var.) = rêvî
  • rivîn f flame
  • riyê → rû
  • rizan v.i. to rot
  • rizandin v.t. to let rot
  • rizgar saved, rescued; ~ bûn v.i. to

escape, be rescued; ~ kirin v.t. to save, rescue; ~kirî saved, liberated

  • rizî rotten
  • rizîn di … de v.t. to be thrown into
  • rizq m sustenance
  • rîş f beard
  • rîtm m rhythm
  • ro f sun: di bin ro(ye)ka havînê de under

a hot summer sun

  • roava m west, dusk; ~yî western
  • rohilat m dawn, east
  • rohnî bright
  • roj f day; ew ~ ev ~ e from that day to

this: ew roj ev roj e malbata min li vî bajarî rûdinê my family has lived in this city from that day to this; ~ane daily; ~ava west; ~hilat f east: Rojhilata Navîn the Middle East; ~name f newspaper; ~namegerî f journalism

  • rokrol f role
  • rom m the Ottoman Empire; Ottoman,

Turk

  • roman f novel; ~nivîs novelist
  • ronahî f light, brightness; bi ~yê derketin

to come to light KURMANJI KURDISH 236

  • ronakbîr intellectual
  • ronayî = ronahî
  • rondik f tear
  • ronesans f renaissance
  • ruh m spirit, soul; ~iyet f morale, spirit
  • ruhnî f brightness; ruhniya çavan light

of the eyes, favorite

  • rutbe m rank
  • ruvî (dial. var.) = rêvî
  • rû m (const riyê, rûwê) face
  • rûbar m river
  • rûhşêrîn convivial, amusing, lighthearted
  • rûj (dial. var.) = roj; ~kê = rojekê one

day, some day

  • rûkenî f smile, smiling
  • rûmet f honor, respect
  • rûn m oil
  • rûniştevan m inhabitant
  • rû-niştin -nê- v.i. to sit, dwell (the

present tense is used only for habitual action; the pres. perf. tense rûniştiye means ‘s/he is sitting,’ and the past. perf. tense rûniştibû means ‘s/he was sitting’); odeya rûniştinê sitting

  • room
  • rûpel f page, sheet
  • rûs Russian; ~î Russian (language)
  • rût naked, bare
  • rûxan v.i. to collapse
  • rûxandin v.t. to destroy

sa f (const. siya) shadow; ser siya … ketin v.i. to get anywhere near …

S[biguherîne]

  • sa‘et f hour
  • sal f year; ~mezin aged
  • salon f reception room
  • san → se
  • sar cold
  • satil f bucket
  • saw terror, fear
  • sawar f bulghur wheat, cracked wheat
  • sax healthy, well, whole
  • saxik honest
  • sayî bûn v.i. to clear up (weather)
  • saz kirin v.t. to establish
  • se m (obl. pl san) dog
  • sebeb m reason
  • sebir f patience; ~ neman to be impatient:

êdî sebra min nemaye now I’ve lost my patience

  • sed hundred; ~sal f century; ~salî f centennary;

ji ~î per cent; bo ~î per cent

  • seda m/f sound ???
  • sedem f reason, cause
  • seff f classroom
  • seg m dog
  • seh f intuition, feeling; ~ kirin v.t. to

understand intuitively

  • sehol f ice
  • seirt f Siirt; ~î native of Siirt
  • sekinan/-în v.i. to settle down, to be

quiet, to dwell; to tarry; to light (gaze) (li ser upon): ez dixwazim li

  • ser pirsekê bisekinim I want to dwell

on a question

  • selik f basket
  • semax f endurance; ~ kirin v.t. to bear,

to endure

  • sen m the River Seine
  • seqem f dry cold
  • seqer f Saqar, a poison that drips from a

tree in hell

  • ser m head; (prep.) to, toward, on, over;

bi ~ ketin v.i. to get ahead, succeed; çûn ser v.i. to attack; ~ê xwe bi … re êşandin v.t. to trouble oneself with, bother with: serê xwe bi kultura kurdî re naêşînin they don’t bother with Kurdish culture; ~ û bin m the “ins and outs,” everything: ser û binê vî gundî ez ê bikanibim ji vî pîremêrî hîn bibim I could learn all there is to know about this village from this old man; bê ~ û bin endless

  • seranser: li ~î (prep.) all over: li seranserê

dinyayê all over the world

  • serbajar m capital

KURDISH-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 237

  • serberdayî stray, wandering
  • serbest free; ~î f freedom
  • serbilind bi proud of; ~ahî/~î f pride
  • serbixwe free; ~bûn f liberation
  • serdar m leader; ~î f leadership, command
  • serdest m overlord; ~î f mastery, rule; ~î

kirin v.t. to rule: yên ku îro serdestiya kurdan dikin those who rule over the Kurds today

  • sereke main
  • serencam f end, outcome
  • serêşî f headache
  • serfirazî f distinction
  • sergerdan perplexed
  • sergevez pride
  • sergiran important
  • sergîn m dung
  • sergovend f dance line; bi serê ~ê girtin

to lead a dance line

  • serhed f frontier, border
  • serî m head; ear (of grain); ~ birdin to

complete; ~ hil-dan to rebel; ~ xistin li to visit; to apply to; çûn serî to come to fruition

  • serîhildan f uprising
  • serjorek û serjêrek ups and downs
  • serkarî f direction, leadership
  • serketin f success
  • serma f cold, coldness
  • sermawêj Libra
  • sermîyan m capital
  • sernivîs f fate
  • sernuxumandî veiled
  • serok m leader; ~atî f leadership; ~cumhûrê

m president; ~eşîr m chieftain; ~wezîr m prime minister

  • serpêhatî f adventure
  • serqot bare-headed
  • serraf m jeweler
  • sersal f new year’s day
  • serserî careless
  • ser-şuştin v.t. to take a bath
  • sertûj towering
  • serve bûn v.i. to be attached
  • serwer m leader
  • serwext informed, knowledgeable
  • sewî f level: rojnameyên me yên roja

îroyîn negihîştine sewiya wan our newspapers of today have not reached their level

  • sewsen lily
  • seyda m savant
  • seyr f view; adj strange
  • seyran f outing; ~ çê-kirin v.t. to arrange

an outing; ~geh f park, promenade, place for an outing

  • sê1 three
  • sê2 f (constr. siya) shadow; di bin siya

… de under the aegis of

  • sêpî f tripod
  • sêwî m orphan
  • sêwlek m sole (of a shoe)
  • sibat f February
  • sibeh f morn, dawn: sibeh heta êvarê

from morning till night; ~ê tomorrow; vê ~ê this morning

  • sibetir f the next morning; ~a wê şevê

the morning after that night

  • sibê = sibeh
  • sih1 angry, irritated; ~itî f irritation
  • sih2 = sî2
  • sijî f puss, filth; ~n v.i. to ooze
  • sik û sar very sad (heart) ???
  • silav f greeting
  • silawat (pl) benedictions; ~an kêşandin

v.t. to give benedictions

  • simbêl m mustache
  • simsimîn v.i. to leave tracks, to make a

trail

  • sincirî flaming, burning
  • sindoq f box, trunk
  • sing f breast
  • sinif f class, grade
  • sipartin sipêr- = spartin
  • sipî = spî
  • sipîndar f poplar
  • sipîta f whiteness

KURMANJI KURDISH 238

  • sir f cold wind; ~ û seqem, ~ û serma f

biting cold weather

  • sirf only, purely
  • sirgûn f exile; ~ bûn to be exiled
  • siruşt f nature
  • sisê three
  • sist weak; ~ kirin v.t. to weaken, make

weak

  • sitar f protection
  • sitêrk = stêrk
  • sitirî m thorn
  • sitran = stran
  • siwarî mounted, on horseback
  • siya → sa
  • siyaset f politics; ~van m politician
  • siyasî political
  • sivik light, not heavy
  • sî1 thirty
  • sî2 f shadow; ~ dan to cast a shadow
  • sîleh (pl) arms, armament: sîlehên sivik

light arms

  • sîng f breast
  • sînor m border, boundary
  • sîstem m system
  • sîtil f (dial. var.) = satil
  • sîwas f Sivas
  • sîwaxnekirî unpenetrated
  • sobe f heating stove; ~ vêxistin to light

a stove

  • sofî Sufi, respectful term of address for

an old man; ~tî f Sufism, mysticism

  • sohbet f conversation, talk
  • sol f shoe; ~çêker m shoemaker
  • sond f oath; ~ xwarin to swear an oath
  • sor red; threshed (wheat); ~ahî f redness
  • sorav red grape; ~î(n) dark red
  • sorgul rose
  • sosin f iris
  • sosret unusualness; bi ~ unusual
  • soz dan v.t. to promise
  • sparin spêr- v.t. to entrust
  • spartin = sparin
  • spas thank you; ~ kirin v.t. to thank;

~darî f gratitude

  • spehî good-looking, pretty, attractive
  • spêda, spêde f dawn
  • spêr- → sparin
  • spî white; ~tî f whiteness
  • standin (dial. var.) = stendin
  • stasyon f railway station
  • stelih ordinary, common
  • stemkarî f oppression
  • stenbol f Istanbul
  • stendin stîn- v.t. to take, get; bi paş de

~ to take back

  • steyr = stêr
  • stêr f star; ~k f star; ~nas m astronomer;

~nasî f astronomy

  • stiran stirê- v.t. to sing
  • stîn- → stendin
  • sto = stû
  • stran f song; ~bêj singer
  • stû m neck; ~xwar obedient, cowed
  • stûn f column
  • stûr thick, stout
  • sufrik m tablecloth
  • sur f breeze
  • sur‘et f speed
  • surgûn = sirgûn
  • suwar on horseback; ~ bûn to mount
  • sûç m crime, fault
  • sûd m profit; ~ wergirtin ji v.t. to profit

from

  • sûl m waterfall
  • sûriya f (obl Sûriyayê, Sûriyê) Syria
  • sûxte m theological student
  • swêd f Sweden

Ş[biguherîne]

  • şa happy, glad; ~ bûn bi v.i. to be happy

with, rejoice over s.th.; ~ kirin v.t. to gladden: wê pirtûkê dilê min şa kiribû that book had gladdened my heart; ~hî f gladness, happiness

  • şafiî Shafiite (school of Islamic jurisprudence)
  • şagirt m pupil, apprentice
  • şah m king
  • şahîd m witness

KURDISH-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 239

  • şahîk shining, brilliant
  • şaîr m poet
  • şal m traditional baggy Kurdish trousers
  • şalûl m magpie
  • şandin şîn- v.t. to send
  • şanî kirin, ~ dan v.t. to show
  • şano f stage
  • şans m chance
  • şareza competent; ~yî f competence, expertise
  • şaş wrong; ~ bûn v.i. to be wrong: ez ne
  • şaş bim I wouldn’t be wrong; ~ kirin

v.t. to mistake; reya xwe ~ kirin v.t. to lose one’s way; ~î f mistake, fault

  • şaşfêhmkirin f misunderstanding
  • şaşik f turban; ~ spî white-turbaned
  • şax m branch
  • şe = şeh
  • şeh m comb; ~ kirin v.t. to comb
  • şehîd m martyr
  • şehsiwar m expert horseman
  • şekal f old shoe
  • şekir m sugar
  • şemitandin v.t. to make slide
  • şemitîn v.i. to slip, to slide
  • şeng tuft of hair
  • şep f blow, slap in the face
  • şepe f snowdrift
  • şepîn v.i. to sink down (into snow)
  • şeqeşeq noisy sound, chatter
  • şequdeq “hard knocks”
  • şer m war: şerê cîhanê yê yekemîn

World War I; ~ kirin, ~ dan (dayîn) v.t. to fight war

  • şeref f honor
  • şerît f the Sharia, Islamic law
  • şerm f shame; ~dar modest; ~darî f

modesty; ~ kirin ji v.t. to be ashamed of: min ji xwe şerm kir I was ashamed of myself

  • şerpeze destitute; ~ bûn v.i. to be destitute;

~ kirin v.t. to put s.o. in a bad situation, to best

  • şert f condition, qualification
  • şervan m warrior
  • şeş six
  • şeşt sixty
  • şev f night; ~reş f dark night
  • şewat f fire
  • şewitandin v.t. to burn
  • şewitîn v.i. to burn
  • şexs person; ~î personal; ~iyet f personality
  • şewq f light; ~a elektrîkê flashlight
  • şê- → şiyan
  • şêlandin şêlîn- v.t. to exploit
  • şêlî turbid, murky
  • şêlû (dial. var.) = şêlî
  • şênî m inhabitant, (pl) people
  • şêrîn sweet
  • şêx m sheikh
  • şidet violence, strength
  • şifêr m driver
  • şiîr f poetry
  • şidandin şidîn- v.t. to strike (a match)
  • şik f doubt; bê ~ doubtless(ly)
  • şikandin şikîn- v.t. to break
  • şikeft f cave
  • şikêr m rock, mountain crag
  • şikestin şikê- v.i. to break, be defeated
  • şikir thanks: şikir ji Xweda re thank

God

  • şikil form, symbol
  • şil damp, wet; ~ kirin v.t. to wet, dampen
  • şilfûtazî buck naked
  • şipê on foot
  • şiqitîn v.i. to slip
  • şirket f company
  • şirove f interpretation; ~ kirin v.t. to

interpret

  • şistin şo- v.t. to wash
  • şivan m (obl. şivên) shepherd
  • şivantî f shepherding; ~ kirin v.t. to

shepherd, to be a sheep herder

  • şivên → şivan
  • şivir m mountain goat
  • şixul m work; ~în v.i. to work, occupy

KURMANJI KURDISH 240 oneself

  • şiyan şê- v.i. to be able
  • şiyar awake; ~ bûn v.i. to wake up; ~

kirin v.t. to wake s.o. up

  • şîn1 blue, green
  • şîn2 = şwîn
  • şîn- → şandin
  • şîndar = şwîndar
  • şîr m milk
  • şîret f advice; ~ kirin li v.t. to advise
  • şîrîn sweet, pretty, nice
  • şît aware, sober
  • şîv f sunset; ~a êvarê nightfall
  • şkandin şkîn- = şikandin
  • şkev f cupboard
  • şo- → şistin
  • şop f footprint, trace; ~ê ji ser xwe

winda kirin to throw a pursuer off track; ~gerên scout, tracker; ~ hiştin v.t. to leave a trace

  • şor1 salty, brackish (water); ~ayî f saltiness
  • şor2 talk, words; ~ kirin v.t. to talk, chat
  • şorbe f soup
  • şoreş f rebellion, uprising; ~ger m rebel,

revolutionary: şoreşgerekî bolşevîk a Bolshevik revolutionary

  • şorezar f desert, wasteland
  • şun = şûn
  • şuştin (dial. var.) = şistin
  • şuxul m work, occupation; ~ kirin v.t.

to work; ~andin v.t. to put to work; ~în v.i. to work

  • şû spouse
  • şûjin û derzî bûn v.i. to stand on end

(the hair)

  • şûlikîn v.i. to move stealthily
  • şûm gloomy, inauspicious
  • şûn f place; track, wake: divê ew têkeve
  • şûna bavê xwe he must follow in his

father’s footsteps; ~a … girtin v.t. to follow in the wake of, take the place of; ~da after: ji wê salê şûnda after this year; nuha ~da henceforth; di ~a ku (conj.) instead of

  • şûş quick, nimble, sleek; mirina ~ sudden

death

  • şûşaşûş pieces of glass
  • şûşe f glass
  • şûştin (dial. var.) = şistin
  • şwîn f mourning; ~dar in mourning

T[biguherîne]

  • ta1 prep. & conj. until: ta niha up till

now

  • ta2 m fever
  • tab m illumination; ~ anîn v.t. to illuminate
  • tabî‘et f nature
  • tacir m merchant; ~î f commerce
  • taht f rock; noka ~ê pebble
  • tal bitter, sharp
  • talde f shelter
  • talyanî Italian
  • tam f taste
  • tamar = temar
  • tanq f tank (mil.)
  • taqet endurance
  • ta‘qîb f surveillance: di bin taqîba

polîsan de under police surveillance; ~ kirin to keep under surveillance

  • tar f a path through snow
  • taran f Tehran
  • tarî dark; ~tî f darkness
  • tarîx f history
  • tas f bowl
  • taşt m breakfast
  • tat m rise, hill
  • tav1 f light, sunlight
  • tav2 f rainshower
  • tavik f sunlight
  • tavilê quickly, soon; immediately
  • taybetî special; bi ~ especially
  • tayek kişandin ji v.t. to shake
  • ta‘yîn kirin v.t. to determine, assign,

appoint

  • tazî naked; ~ kirin v.t. to strip naked
  • te → tu
  • tebî‘î natural

KURDISH-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 241

  • tebrîz f Tabriz
  • tecrube f experience
  • tedrîcen gradually
  • tefandin -tefîn- v.t. to put out (light,

candle)

  • tefeş f face, countenance
  • tefîn v.i. to go out (light, candle)
  • tefsîr Koranic commentary
  • tehlûke f danger
  • tehqîr f deprecation
  • tehsîldar m tax collector
  • teht m mountain range
  • tejî (dial. var.) = tijî
  • tek single, alone, by oneself; ~ û tenê

alone, all by oneself

  • tekane lone
  • teko alone, singly
  • telaş commotion
  • telefon f telephone
  • teletel on tiptoes
  • televizyon f television
  • telte f sheet (of ice), crust
  • tem m fog
  • temam perfect, complete
  • temar f artery, vein
  • temaşa kirin v.t. to watch, to look at
  • temaşe = temaşa
  • temaşevan spectator, watcher
  • tembel lazy; ~î f laziness
  • temen m life, lifespan, age
  • temene respect; bi ~ respectfully
  • temirîn v.i. to die ???
  • temiz kirin v.t. to clean
  • temsîlkar m representative
  • tena = tenha
  • tendûr f oven, pit; ~a zik the pit of the

belly

  • tenê alone, only, except for; bi ~ only:

em ferz bikin ku tu bi tenê bikaribî Kurdistanekê çêbikî let’s assume that you could only create one Kurdistan; ne bi ~ … lê jî not only… but also; ~tî f misery, loneliness

  • teng narrow, tight; ~asî f difficulty,

straits

  • tenha alone; bi ~ xwe by him/her/itself,

alone

  • tenîşta next to
  • teorî f theory
  • tep f tap
  • tepan mallet
  • tepandin v.t. to pat, to tap
  • tepe m summit, mountain top
  • teperep kirin v.t. to rap
  • teq f a sharp sound; ~-û-req loud sound
  • teqandin teqîn- v.t. to burst, explode, to

fire, shoot (gun)

  • teqîn v.i. to burst, explode
  • ter fresh, verdant; ~î f freshness
  • tercîh kirin v.t. to prefer
  • tercuman m translator
  • teres pimp
  • terikî chapped
  • te‘rîf kirin v.t. to describe (ji … re for,
  • to)
  • terîqet m dervish order
  • terk f leaving; ~ dan/kirin v.t. to leave,

abandon: gava terka mala xwe da when s/he left home

  • term m corpse
  • terorîzm f terrorism
  • terpilîn v.i. to roll
  • terrî f tail
  • terş livestock
  • tesewif Sufism; ~î Sufistic
  • te’sîr f influence
  • teslîm kirin v.t. to turn in, to turn over,
  • to submit
  • teşkîl f organization, formation
  • teşt f trough
  • teşwîq encouragement; ~ kirin v.t. to

encourage

  • teşxele f trouble, turmoil
  • tetik, tetîk f trigger
  • tev all, entire, altogether; together with;

~a all, entirely, totally; ~ahî/~ayî f entirety: di tevayiya Ewrûpa all over Europe; ~da, ~ de altogether, entire- ly; bi ~ayî entirely, in toto; xwe ~girê-dan v.t. to get oneself together

  • tevdîr f plan
  • tevger f industry, activity, movement:
  • tevgera Rizgariya Kurdistanê Kurdish

Liberation Movement

  • tevizî numb
  • tevizîn f numbness; ~ok f numb feeling
  • tevî (prep.) along with; ~hev altogether;

~ ku (conj.) although

  • tevlihev confused, mixed up; ~î f confusion
  • tevlî f awareness
  • tewqif kirin v.t. to arrest
  • texçik f shelf
  • texlît sort, kind: her du texlît nivîsar

both sorts of writers

  • texmîn f guess, thought; ~ kirin v.t. to

guess, estimate

  • text m throne
  • texte m board
  • teyan a large basin used in bathhouses
  • teyr, têr m bird; ~ û tûy birds and fowl
  • teze new(ly), fresh(ly); ~ kirin to refresh
  • tê1 = di + wî/wê
  • tê2 = tu + ê
  • tê3 coming, next: meha ~ the coming

month

  • tê-gihîştin v.i. to understand, realize
  • têk çûn v.i. to break up, split apart
  • têkelî prep. along with
  • tê-ketin v.i. to go to, wind up (somewhere):

ew dixwaze têkeve cepheyan he wants to go to the fronts; ~ şûna to

  • take the place of: kengê azadî û

serbestî ê têkevin şûna sitemkarî û zordariyê? when will freedom and independence

  • take the place of injustice

and oppression?

  • têkil connected; ~bûn f connectedness;

~î f connection

  • tê-kirin v.t. to put on
  • têkoşer m activist, combatant
  • têkoşîn dan v.t. to strive, make an effort
  • têkûz (dial. var.) = tekûz
  • têr1 full, satisfied; ~ bûn v.i. to be satisfied

(hunger), to be slaked (thirst); ~ kirin v.t. to satisfy, make full, to be sufficient: emrê wî têr nekir he didn’t live long enough

  • têr2 = teyr
  • têvel various, different
  • tê-xistin v.t. to include; xwe ~ to put

oneself

  • tif f spit
  • tifik f bellows, hearth
  • tifing f rifle
  • tije brimful
  • tijî full; ~ kirin v.t. to fill
  • tilî f finger
  • tilik, tilîk = tilî
  • tim1 always; her~ always
  • tim2 f desire
  • timobîl f automobile
  • tinê (dial. var.) = tenê
  • tiral lazy
  • tirb f grave, tomb
  • tirên f train; ~a di binê erdê de subway;

ji ~ê by train

  • tirimpêl f automobile
  • tirk Turk; ~î Turkish (language); ~nijad

racially Turkish

  • tirkiye f (obl Tirkiyeyê, Tirkiyê) Turkey
  • tirs f fear; ~an va out of fear
  • tirsandin v.t. to scare; to fear
  • tirsêner frightful, frightening
  • tirsiyan/tirsîn ji v.i. to be afraid of, fear
  • tirş bitter; rûyê xwe ~ kirin to scowl
  • tişt m thing: tiştekî din something else
  • titûn f tobacco
  • tiving f (dial. var.) = tufing
  • tiwê = tu wê
  • tixtor m doctor
  • tî thirsty
  • tîfal ???
  • tîj (dial. var.) = tûj; ~ û hûr nêrîn li to

look closely and carefully at, to scrutinize

  • tîn1 f thirst
  • tîn2 → bêtîn
  • tîn- → anîn
  • tîp f letter of the alphabet; m type, sort
  • tîr thick, dense, dark
  • tîraj f print run; kêm ~ of a small print

run, printed in small numbers

  • tîrêj f sunlight, ray: tîrêjên hêviyê rays

of hope

  • tîş piece, group
  • tol f revenge; ~ wergirtin v.t. to extract

revenge

  • top f cannon, cannonball
  • topik f pile
  • torbe sack
  • torin m person of name, person of renown;

descendant, offspring

  • toz f dust; ~ û telaz dust
  • trimbêl f automobile
  • tu1 (obl. te) you (sing.)
  • tu2 no, not any, none, nothing; ~ caran

never; ~ kes nobody; ~ tişt nothing

  • tucar never
  • tuf f spit; ~ kirin v.t. to spit
  • tufing f rifle, gun; ~ ber-dan to fire a

rifle at

  • tukesî (+ neg.) nobody
  • tûj sharp
  • tûk f hair, fur
  • tûle m pup, cub
  • tûlik m cub
  • tûr m bag; ~ik m sack
  • tûrt = turt
  • tûtin f tobacco

U[biguherîne]

  • ummet f religious community
  • ‘umr m life
  • unda (dial. var.) = wenda
  • unîversîte f university
  • urisî Russian
  • usa (dial. var.) = wisa
  • ustu = stû
  • ûzeûz f rumble

V[biguherîne]

  • va = ve
  • vala empty; ~ kirin v.t. to empty; ~hî f
  • void; vikû~ totally empty
  • vazo f vase
  • ve (postposition) forms the second part

of a number of circumpositions, generally indicating motion away from; see the prepositional element

  • ve-bûn v.i. to open
  • ve-ceniqîn (dial. var.) = ve-ciniqîn
  • ve-ciniqandin v.t. to make tremble with

fear, to make shudder, to startle

  • ve-ciniqîn v.i. to be seized by fright, to

be startled

  • ve-dan v.t. to give off; deng ~ to echo
  • veger f return
  • ve-gerandin -gerîn- v.t. to turn, to turn

back

  • ve-geriyan/gerîn v.i. to return; ~ ser to

turn to

  • ve-gevizîn v.i. to flounder, wallow
  • ve-hêrandin v.t. to grind up, crunch
  • vehûnayî spread out
  • ve-jandin -jîn- v.t. to revivify
  • ve-jenîn v.i. to rustle
  • ve-jinîn (dial. var.) = ve-jenîn
  • ve-kirin v.t. to open
  • ve-kişandin ji v.t. to pull out of, pull

back from, withdraw from

  • ve-kişîn v.i. to withdraw
  • ve-maltin v.t. to roll up the sleeves
  • ve-man v.i. to bog down
  • ve-miran (ve-mirîn) v.i. to go out (fire,

&c.); ~din v.t. to put out, extinguish, quell, quench: min lampa xwe vemirand I put out my light

  • ve-poşandin v.t. to cover
  • ve-qetandin v.t. to distinguish, separate
  • ve-qetiyan v.i. to get separated: ji ber

perçebûna welêt riyên zaravayên kurmancî û soranî ji hevûdu vediqetin after the division of the country the paths of the Kurmanji and Sorani dialects part from each other; ~ bi to be distinguished by

  • ve-qetîn = ve-qetiyan
  • verê-kirin to send off, dispatch
  • ve-şartin -şêr- v.t. to hide, bury
  • ve-texirîn v.i. to taper off
  • ve-xistin v.t. to throw down
  • ve-xwarin v.t. to drink
  • ve-zelan v.i. to lie down and roll

around; xwe ve-zelandin to throw oneself down and roll around

  • ve-ziliandin = ve-zelandin
  • vê → ev
  • vêca therefore
  • vêcar then, so
  • vê-geriyan = ve-geriyan
  • vêk re together
  • vên f wish, desire
  • vê-xistin v.t. to light
  • vikûvala → vala.
  • vir here
  • vizîn v.i. to buzz, to hum
  • vizvizkî tangled, knotted
  • vî → ev
  • vîrus f virus
  • vîzevîz f blowing, rustling (of wind)

W[biguherîne]

  • waqewaq squeal of an animal
  • war1 m = bar
  • war2 m regard, respect; di ~ê … de concerning;

di vî ~î de in this regard, in this respect

  • war3 m camp, camping ground; ~geh m

camp site

  • warkor çûn to disappear without a trace
  • we → hun
  • wefakar faithful
  • wefat f death
  • weha thus, such
  • wek (prep.) like; ~e (prep.) like; ~e ku

(conj.) as: weke ku min got as I said; ~î din anything else

  • wekhev alike, equal; ~î f equality: li ser

esasên wekhev on a basis of equality

  • wekîl advocate, lawyer; ~darî f advocacy
  • welat m (obl. welêt) country, homeland;

~hez lover of the homeland, patriot; ~parêz defender of the homeland, patriot( ic); ~perwer patriot

  • wele = welle
  • weleh = welê
  • welê thus, like that
  • welle by God
  • wenda lost; ~ bûn v.i. to be lost; ~ kirin

v.t. to lose

  • wer bûn di v.i. to fall into
  • wer- → hatin
  • werger m translator; ~van m translator
  • wer-gerandin v.t. to transform, translate
  • wer-girtin v.t. to take up (see ber wergirtin,

sûd wergirtin, tol wergirtin)

  • werimandin v.t. to cause to swell
  • werimîn v.i. to swell
  • wer-kirin li v.t. to wrap around
  • wesiyetname f will, testament
  • werîs m rope
  • wesf m attribute, quality; ~ dan to describe
  • westan west- v.i. to stand, stop; to be

exhausted

  • westiyan = westan
  • westiyayî exhausted
  • weşandin weşîn- v.t. to publish
  • weşanxane f publishing house
  • wext f time: di eynî wextê de at the same

time; di wexteke kurt de within a short time; ~ê ku (conj.) when

  • wezin f poetic meter
  • wezîfe f duty
  • wezaret f ministry: Wezareta Ferhengê

the Ministry of Culture

  • wezîr m minister; ~tî f ministry
  • wê1 → ew
  • wê2 future auxiliary + subj. for future

tense

  • wêje f speech, literature
  • wêne m picture, painting; ~ger m artist,

painter

  • wêran destroyed, ruined; ~ kirin v.t. to

destroy, ruin

  • wêrîn v.i. (+ subj.) to dare
  • winda (dial. var.) = wenda
  • wir there
  • wirîn (dial. var.) = wêrîn
  • wisa(n) thus, such, so
  • wî → ew
  • wîjdan m conscience
  • wucûd f existence; hatin ~ê to come into existence
  • wusan (dial. var.) = wisa

X[biguherîne]

x- → xistin

  • xak f earth, ground
  • xal f mole
  • xalxalî in spots, spotted
  • xanim f lady, mistress
  • xanî m house
  • xapandin xapîn- v.t. to deceive, to fool,

to play a trick on: mîna ku hatibe

  • xapandin as though a trick had been

played on him

  • xapîn v.i. to be deceived, to be fooled
  • xapok deceptive
  • xapxapok deceitful
  • xar1 crooked, bent
  • xar2 (dial. var.) = xwar
  • xarin (dial. var.) = xwarin
  • xastin (dial. var.) = xwestin
  • xasûk cunning, shrewd
  • xatir m mind, heart; ~gir considerate,

obliging; ~ girtin to be considerate of, respect: biçûk û mezinan xatirê wî digirtin young and old were considerate of him; ~xwestin f affection; bi

  • xatirê re wî ji min re got he said to

me with affection; dan ~ê … to be considerate of …

  • xav raw, immature
  • xayin traitor
  • xazî m ghazi, holy warrior
  • xazîk ???
  • xebat f work, struggle
  • xeber f words, speech: xebera wî ye

that’s what he says

  • xeberdan f talk, speech
  • xebitan li ser v.i. to work on, strive for
  • xebitîn = xebitan
  • xedar pitiless, cruel
  • xefk f trap
  • xelas kirin (v.t. to finish
  • xelasî f liberation; şerê xelasiyê war of

liberation

  • xelat f prize, reward; ~ kirin v.t. to reward
  • xelk m (construed as sing. for case but

pl. by sense) people

  • xem f grief, sadness; ~ xwarin ji v.t. to

sympathize with; ~gîn sorrowful; ~gînî f sorrow: ez bi xemgînî dibêjim ku… I say with sorrow that…

  • xemilandin v.t. to adorn
  • xencer f dagger
  • xerab ruined; ~-bûn to be ruined; ~e

ruined; ~î f harm, ruination

  • xerez f rancor, grudge; ~karî f holding a

grudge

  • xerîfî senile
  • xerc kirin v.t. to spend
  • xerîb stranger, foreigner, exiled, away

from one’s homeland; ~î f estrangement, foreignness, the state of being away from one’s homeland; welatê ~yê foreign country

  • xerîte f map
  • xertel f eagle
  • xesandin xesîn- v.t. to twist, wring
  • xesar f damage, loss; ~ dîtin v.t. to suffer

loss, be damaged; ~nedîtî undamaged

  • xet f line
  • xew m sleep; ketin ~ê to fall asleep; ji ~

ra-kirin to rouse from sleep

  • xewle lonely, desolate
  • xewlî f desolation, isolation
  • xewn f dream; ~ dîtin v.t. to dream,

have a dream; ~erojik daydream

  • xeyal f imagination, fantasy, dream
  • xeyidîn ji v.i. to get angry at
  • xeyn other; ji ~î (prep.) other than, aside

from: ji xeynî van tiştan other than these things

  • xeyo (Syr. Ar. khayyo, voc. only) fellow,

guy, friend

  • xezal gazelle
  • xezeb f rage, wrath
  • xezîne f treasury
  • xezûr m father-in-law; f mother-in-law
  • xêr f goodness; ~xweşî f chitchat;

bi~hatinî dan v.t. to welcome: jinekê bixêrhatinî da min a woman welcomed me; bi ~a … re thanks to; bi ~ û bêr very good; ji ~a … re because of, on account of; ~hatinê kirin li v.t. to welcome; hatin ~ê to be a welcome guest

  • xêz f line; ~ik ditto
  • xidmet f service
  • xilas kirin to be saved
  • xilmamş = xilmaş
  • xilmaş half asleep, sleepy
  • xirab bad, evil
  • xisar f loss
  • xistin x- v.t. to cast, throw, put in, make

fall; ji hev de ~ to break up; ~ li to beat

  • xisûsiyet = xusûsiyet
  • xişikîn v.i. to drag along, scrape across
  • xişr m/f ornament ???
  • xişxiş f rustling, scratching sound
  • xitab m address; ~ kirin v.t. to address;

~ê kesekî kirin to address, speak to s.o.

  • xitimandin v.t. to close, seal: rê hatine
  • xitimandin the roads have been closed
  • xiyal f dream, imagination
  • xizmet f service; ~ kirin v.t. to serve
  • xînji (dial. var.) = xeyn ji
  • xîret f zeal, bravery, courage; ~ kirin

v.t. to try hard

  • xîze-xîze grating sound
  • xo f (dial. var.) = xwe; ~a xwe his own

self

  • xoce m master, teacher
  • xof f fear; ~ û tirs f fear and trembling
  • xort young, young man/woman; ~anî f

youth

  • xoşdivî beloved
  • xu (dial. var.) = xwe
  • xuda m (obl. xudê) God; ~ hefiz goodbye
  • xudan m owner; bê~ godless, Godforsaken,

poor, pitiable

  • xuh f sister
  • xulam m slave; manservant
  • xunav f sprinkle, light rain
  • xur f itch
  • xure xur f snoring
  • xurên on an empty stomach
  • xurîn = xurên
  • xurme f date
  • xurt strong, powerful; ~ û gur strong,

puissant

  • xurû natural
  • xusûsiyet f characteristic, distinguishing

feature

  • xuşîn v.i. to rustle, to gurgle
  • xuşk f sister
  • xuya clear, obvious; ~ bûn v.i. to be obvious,

appear, show up; ~ kirin v.t. to seem, appear: hotel gelekî xweş û luks

  • xuya dikir the hotel looked very nice

and deluxe

  • xuyan v.i. to seem, to appear
  • xuyanî familiar; ~ kirin v.t. to familiarize
  • xûn f blood; ~a cegerê liver’s blood,

metaphor for tears of agony and suffering

  • xûs f snowdrift ???
  • xûyan = xuyan
  • xwar down; ser … da ~ bûn to lean

over s.th.; ~ bûn v.i. to descend; ~ kirin v.t. to lower, take down; hatin ~ to come down

  • xwarin f food
  • xwarin xw- v.t. to eat
  • xwaroviçko coiled up
  • xwaz- → xwestin
  • xwe oneself, -self (refers to the subject

of the clause in which it occurs); ~ girtin li ber to defend oneself against; ji ~ in and of itself; bi~ himself, herself, itself; li ~ kirin to put on, wear (clothes)

  • xwebiçûkdîtin f inferiority: kompleksa
  • xwebiçûkdîtinê inferiority complex
  • xwedan m chief, head, leader
  • xwedê m God
  • xwedî m possessor, owner: xwediyê

paseporteke Swêdî bûm I possessed a Swedish passport

  • xwehesîn f self-awareness
  • xweîfadekirin f self-expression
  • xwelî f dust, ash; ~ li serê xwe kirin to

pour dust on one’s head, to mourn; ~dan f ashtray

  • xwen f dream, vision
  • xwenas self-respecting
  • xwenav = xunav
  • xwendin xwîn-/xwên- v.t. to read, study
  • xwende/a learned, literate; ~geh f

school, university; ~kar student; ~van m reader, scholar

  • xwerû independent; pure(ly), exclusive(

ly): ev kovar ne xwerû bi kurdî ne these journals are not exclusively in Kurdish

  • xweser unbridled
  • xwestin xwaz- v.t. to want, to ask for
  • xweş nice, pleasant, good; ~bûn f success;

~hal pleased, happy; ~haliya

  • xwe gotin to express one’s pleasure;

~ik nice, pretty; ~î f pleasure

  • xwey = xwe
  • xweya = xuya
  • xweyî = xwedî; ~ kirin v.t. to raise

(animals)

  • xwezî would that, I wish (+ past conditional);

~tî f desire, wish

  • xwê f salt; sweat
  • xwêdan v.t. to sweat
  • xwişk f sister
  • xwî m habit, disposition
  • xwîn f blood; ~egoşt flesh and blood;

~dar bloody; ~germ fervent; ~germî f fervor; ~şêrîn likeable

  • xwîsgirtî damp
  • xwîzî f spit, saliva
  • xwûşk (dial. var.) = xwişk

ya fem. sing. construct extender; bi ~ te in your opinion

Y[biguherîne]

  • yadê (voc. only) mother
  • yan or; ~ … ~ either … or
  • ya‘nî that is, i.e.
  • yar m friend
  • ya rebî O Lord!
  • yek one; ~ bûn v.i. to be united; ~bûyî

united; ~dengî f unanimity; ~dest of one piece; ~ejmar singular; ~emîn first; ~îtî f unity; ~îtiya Neteweyan the League of Nations; ~netewetî f uninationalism, monoethnicity; ~ser direct; ~ta peerless, without equal

  • yekser right away, immediately
  • yê masc. sing. construct extender
  • yên pl. construct extender
  • YNK = Yekîtîya Nîştîmanperwerên
  • Kurdistanê Patriotic Union of Kurdistan(PUK)
  • Yunan Greek

Z[biguherîne]

  • zabit m (obl zêbit) m officer
  • zaf (dial. var.) = zehf
  • zalim m tyrant, unjust
  • zang sheer (cliff) ???
  • zanîn v.t. to know (neg. present nízanim,

past (dí)zanibûm, subj. bízanibim); ~ bi to know about: xelk bi KURMANJI KURDISH 248 siyasetê nizanin the people don’t know anything about politics

  • zana = zane
  • zane learned, wise; ~bûn f wisdom;
  • zanyarî f knowledge
  • zar m language; ~ava m dialect; ~şêrîn

well-spoken, articulate

  • zaro small, young, m/f youngster; ~k

child; ~katî, ~ktî, ~tî f youth, childhood

  • zarîn v.i. to wail, lament
  • zar û zêç (pl) kids
  • zava m bridegroom
  • zayin f birth
  • zehf many, lots of, very, very much
  • zehmet f trouble; ~ kişandin v.t. to have

difficulty, go to trouble, be bothered; ~î f ditto; ~kêş worker, laborer

  • ze‘îf weak, skinny
  • zelal clear, limpid; ~ kirin v.t. to make

clear, clarify

  • zelam = zilam
  • zeliqandin v.t. to stick
  • zeliqîn v.i. to stick
  • zelûl m despondent
  • zeman m time, era
  • zemzelîlk f icicle ???
  • zend f forearm
  • zengal m/f legging ???
  • zengil m bell; ~ê telefonê telephone

call; li ~ê dêrî xistin to ring the doorbell

  • zengîn rich; ~î f wealth
  • zer yellow; ~atî f yellowness; ~bûyî

yellowed; ~ û zinar “nooks and crannies”

  • zerar f detriment, loss
  • zerdeşt Zoroaster
  • zevî f land, field
  • zewac f marriage
  • zewicîn bi … re v.i. to get married to
  • zewq m delight
  • zexim strong, sound; zexmî f strength
  • zêbit → zabit
  • zêc hide ???
  • zêde much, a lot; ~ bûn v.i. to increase;

~ kirin v.t. to increase

  • zêr m gold; ~în golden
  • zêrbenî ???
  • zêrekî f cleverness, intelligence
  • zihniyet f mentality
  • zik m belly; ~ekî têr xwarin v.t. to eat

to one’s fill; ~makî native, inborn

  • zilam m man, guy, fellow
  • ziliandin → ve-ziliandin
  • zilik straw
  • zilim f injustice, tyranny
  • ziman m (obl zimên) language, tongue;

bi ~ anîn v.t. to give voice to, express; ~van linguist; ~vanî f linguistics

  • zinar m (obl. zinêr) rock
  • zing ???
  • zingar f rust; ~girtî rusty, rusted; ~ girtin

v.t. to rust, get rusty

  • zincîr f chain, bond
  • zindan f prison
  • zindî alive, energetic, lively
  • ziving f cave
  • zivistan f winter
  • zirav slender, slight
  • zivir twisted, knotted
  • zivirandin zivirîn- v.t. to turn around,

turn back; çavên xwe ~ ji … de to turn one’s eyes away from …, avert one’s gaze from …

  • zivirîn zivir- v.i. to turn, go/come back,

turn around, wander

  • ziwa dry
  • zixim (dial. var.) = zexim
  • zîn zê- v.i. to live, come to life
  • zîre cumin
  • zîrek clever
  • zîtbûyî ???
  • zîv m silver
  • zîvalzîvalî ???
  • zîving = ziving
  • zîvironekî sandy, dusty

KURDISH-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 249

  • zman = ziman
  • zolilk blossom, bloom
  • zor f force; ~ dan v.t. to force, compel;

~ kirin v.t. to use force; bi (destê) ~ê by force; ~betî f oppressiveness; ~dar forceful, oppressive; ~darî f oppression; ~destî f force, pressure; ~kirin f violence

  • zozan m summer pasture, meadow
  • zuha (dial. var.) = ziwa
  • zuk f prominent, obvious
  • zulf m/f tress, lock (of hair) ???
  • zulum = zilim
  • zurne f clarion; ~van m clarion player
  • zû quick, fast, soon, early; ~ an dereng

sooner or later; ~ be ~ very quickly; ~ de (+ pres. perf.) for a long time: zû de ye me hev û du neditiye we haven’t seen each other for a long time; ~bîrbirî f quick thinking; ~ka, ~~ka hurriedly, hastily, quickly; ~kanî f haste: zûkaniya te çi ye? what’s your hurry?; ~ ve for a long time, since long; ji ~ de from early on

  • zûrezûr f howling
  • zûrîn v.i. to howl
  • zûr man v.i. to be lost